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On behalf of the national exhibition in Geneva for example, Zurich exposed a photographic poster of its most representative school buildings in Zurich City Fig. And local master masons published reviews on the newest communal or cantonal buildings e. In addition, the local significance of the schoolhouse was increasingly discussed at the beginning of the 20 th century, a period marked by high investment in building construction, demolition of traditional buildings substituted by modern art nouveau buildings and international demographic movement.

This accelerated change and modernisation process was accompanied by its counterpart, the life reform movement, as answer to the perceived and dreaded loss of cultural identity. As a public building, it was part of the public estate and thus it should materialise the community awareness, express the character of the people. Thus, architecture and schoolhouse design should follow local traditions instead of imitating foreign aesthetics - and foreign meant here not only extra-national, but also the import of urban architecture into rural communes.

While the Swiss pavilion at the international hygiene exhibition in Dresden presented Switzerland as Swiss nation, in Switzerland, nationality or nationhood were being linked more and more to the local commune constructing the national without mentioning the nation-state in a political sense. Fritschi published a review of school buildings constructed in Switzerland that year.

As typical examples serve schoolhouses built in communes, not in cantons: St. The national unity was constructed by professional architecture standards combining hygiene and architecture quality with aesthetic adaptation to the local environment as new criteria besides splendour and impressiveness that honoured the communes FRITSCHI, , p.

The schoolhouse was seen as an important indicator of citizenship because of the high expenditures that it conveyed for the public hand demonstrating the patriotic sacrifice of the people in favour of the local and the national development. Appealing and acknowledging the willingness for sacrifice in favour of education was a form of anchoring adult and child citizens.

The school building as transmitter of educational content was not a novelty of the heritage protection movement. German doctor Georg Varrentrapp compared the schoolhouse with a textbook from which the child, the future adult and citizen, could learn. Civic engagement for the local school could be rewarded, eventually integrating offices of local school authorities into the school building as it was the case in the City of St.

The heritage protection movement coincided with the increasing number of architects graduated from the ETH. Henry Baudin explained in :. These simultaneous [educational] actions […] have a happy influence on […] the creation of equipped generations armed for the harsh material and moral struggle for life. It is therefore not foolhardy to say that […] in Switzerland, school architecture can be considered, if not as a primordial factor, but as a powerful and indispensable auxiliary to education and instruction, because, more and more, Swiss architects are dominated by the idea of making school "a house of gaiety and light where the soul of the child would open itself with a smile to the beauty of things 10 BAUDIN, , p.

The school building in Switzerland supported the construction of a multifaceted Swiss citizen: it includes local, cantonal, national and international spaces of knowledge, and the involvement of laymen and professionals. The school building is a part of schooling that cannot be clearly assigned to one sole profession or one political authority. Thus, it represents at the same time an area of competition and the material synthesis of such relations. Local engagement and local aesthetics anchored the citizen to the commune.

National exhibitions and cantonal competition anchored the citizen to the canton. The technological output of the ETH and its international competitiveness anchored the citizen to the nation state. Differentiation meant being a Swiss citizen in contrast to other nation states, a citizen of a specific canton, and within a canton a citizen of a specific commune.

Standardisation meant the shared expectation not only with respect of the technological and aesthetic quality of the school building, but also that education at all levels of the system was a pillar of the Swiss state and a common trait of the Swiss citizen.

Multilingual Luxembourg, a tiny Grand Duchy in the middle of Europe, situated between Germany and France, could not built its national vision on a monolingual citizenship. In the course of history, it had been considered part of Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands, giving rise to the idea of a societal bilingualism. Thus, Luxembourg was deeply concerned about national autonomy, size, and international competitiveness.

This unique mixture is also omnipresent in architectural multilingualism. And still today, Luxembourgian scenery reveals very different contingent architectural traces of Italian, Spanish, Wallonish de Beauffe , French Vauban , Austrian, and Prussian architecture. Historical evidence will be drawn from two national construction booms in the s and the s. In the late 18 th century, schooling in larger towns took place within other local authority spaces, as the case of the city of Wiltz illustrates: The same building hosted not only the local primary school but also the bailiff, the local police, and the hunter of the Duke THEIN, , thus forming an inseparable unit of state power, local noble privileges, and school.

When Luxembourg was under French rule during the French Revolution, this unit fell largely apart: many schoolhouses were assigned to the commune and the spaces of local noble privilege were auctioned to local notables. A Luxembourgian state had been planned at the Congress of Vienna, though it was governed by the Dutch monarchy in personal union. This province of Luxembourg commonly rented buildings for the winter months for the purpose of schooling: In , Luxembourg counted rented winter schools for schoolmasters.

Simultaneously, the government arranged architectural competitions for the erection of new schools, and appointed a commission consisting of state architecture commissioners, a geologist, and major local notables; yet, there was no education expert involved at all THEIN, , p. But still after independence in , many communes, especially in rural areas such as the Oesling, held school without a school building.

In the s and s, however, the reuse of buildings that had not originally been created for schooling was criticized as inappropriate and untimely. From then on, an exclusive building for school became a standard initiated in the centre and diffusing to the periphery. At the same time, Luxembourg changed from an emigration to an immigration country and experienced a distinct economic upturn.

This development entailed a drastic policy change within the new state. The city now expanded during the following decades beyond the former fortress boundaries and evolved architecturally and urbanistically: City boulevards and parks, plateaus and bridges were built, that connected the new quarters around the train station with the city centre.

School building activities of this time include the schools in Pfaffenthal , Bonnevoie , Clausen , Hollerich and , and Grund The broad cultural and educational policy reform projects were likely endorsed by increasing institutionalisation, standardisation, and systematisation.

They furthermore widened existing educational structures that had been perceived as local or strata-bound foremost urban-capital phenomena, to national projects. One of these reforms was the implementation of mandatory schooling in that expanded and organised the public-school system.

Sources such as postcards with images of school buildings emphasised the aspirations of making primary schooling available for all citizens and demonstrated the transformation of the school building into a symbol of progress or failure of the modern public-school system SCHREIBER, Another important school expansion took place after World War II. Construction activity in general boomed in the s with financial support from the USA to replace the schools destructed during war.

Also new primary and middle schools were constructed all over the country, especially in the rural and structurally weak Luxembourgian North. The exterior appearance of schools followed a widely uniform construction and design regardless of school track and school type. As a symbol of progress and hope, the school building took effect both locally, where it also promised a new dimension of social justice and chances especially for the children of industrial workers, and internationally, where it signalised that Luxembourg could keep track with international development:.

Down in the valley, the father is working at the iron works, but from time to time he looks toward the Fonderie quarter, where his son is being prepared in the new school building for his future life ANLUX…, MEN, Equal chances and national coherence were core points of the school construction programme and its correspondent discourses: Hierarchical differences that had existed so far, such as the ascetic character of schools in the rural North, were retrospectively attributed to climatic circumstances like rough winds, instead of societal hierarchies SIMON, Among the local guests were not only representatives of the commune, clergymen and politicians, but also prominent army and police members e.

Over the decades, the school buildings became national institutional buildings that served for national unification in manifold ways, some of which will be outlined hereafter. A former city school student reported, how the view from the classroom to the cathedral, the citizen administration building, and the post office with its imposing clock impressed the school children SCHWAB, Indeed, school buildings formed a public complex as moral architecture together with other institutions of the nation-state ROTHMAN, In most Luxembourgish communes in the 19 th and beginning 20 th centuries, school buildings were built near churches and were connected to them by a narrow path.

The construction boom in the s and s brought forth new complex architectural relationships with school buildings, such as spatial interactions with saving banks, post offices, and community houses. Deficiencies of school buildings were brought in correlation with a moral deficit. For instance, schools were criticized for having too many classrooms aligned along too narrow corridors:.

These moral features attributed to school buildings show how persistent the 19 th century notion of the nation-state as a moral nation was in the 20 th century. In the s, less obvious but not less intense, it was expected that the school building should teach the child to shape the milieu by him - or herself, making it better, more beautiful and more valuable.

School buildings also worked as tools for anchoring citizens. Until the late 19th century, schools were at any case placed in non-commercial spaces, in civic zones with other public buildings or in domestic, residential zones intending to attract young families to the suburbs.

The school buildings were for instance integrated into the official statistics, which provided the inspectors with concrete criteria to make classrooms comparable and evaluate schools. Yet, despite these prescriptions, many school construction plans were approved without the documents. These measures were more likely to establish objective procedures involving official expertise than decision-making, supposedly aiming at overcoming intranational tensions between different occupational groups and stakeholders.

The reports about school buildings also reveal that their construction was not at all purely rational, but indeed acknowledged other public dimensions of the school system, yet in a more implicit and less representational way.

This reveals another aspect, the school building as the local community core. New primary and middle schools were built between and to favour a nationwide consistent school distribution. The authorities and the public discourse in the s and s envisioned rather uniform school buildings throughout the nation, i. The architects were instructed to integrate schools into the existent environment making the learning process itself local through the school building: ibid.

For local studies, too, the schoolhouse was used as a concrete object of instruction. Taking advantage of the usage of local products and topics for construction and decoration of the buildings, various doors, windows and other elements were used as motives for drawings ERPELDING, , p. However, the school buildings themselves included manifold aspects of local differentiation.

Communal competition was fostered on levels other than the concrete shape, as is the case in the sums spent for schools, the order in which they were granted, and in popular petitions reacting to inequalities in this field ANLUX…, MEN, ; MEN, One example: Local press reports about primary schooling increased promptly in small communes like Kleinbettingen, Bondorf, Rumelange or Hobscheid.

In these periodicals, landscapes, regional and communal spaces, were depicted as milieus, as living spaces for different kinds of citizens. In public discourse, school politics became a venue for communal political competition. National coherence was emphasized on a formal level. But on school level, subtle differences between schools became pluralized. The local community gave schools occasion to develop their own particularities such as participation opportunities for parents and municipality members, and classes for migrants and disabled children.

The analysis shows how schools served the construction of unified and equal citizenship. However, school buildings themselves held manifold opportunities for differentiation. Two examples illustrate this. The first example concerns the processes, how uniform model school types spread from the capital to the country in the later 19 th century, as a symbol of progress for the new nation-state. These model school types furthered a differentiation within the nation. The first standard model of school buildings had a clearly recognizable neo-classicist shape: it was an urban architectural model, a low building with colonnade-like elements, doors and windows with semi-circular, stilted and segmental arcs, festoons around the buildings, one uniform national model that spread the urban model of schooling SIMON, ; SCHREIBER, This model with architectural reference to Greek temple fronts had become the standard school building and had occasioned a fever of imitation at the countryside SIMON, By the s, this standard model for school building shaped the image of the village significantly.

This construction style is typical for Luxembourgian schools, churches, and major government and military buildings Ibid. Source: Tageblatt , july 31, However, at the time this model had gained national popularity, a new model school type was already spreading from the towns of the centre, around Luxembourg City. Here, the usage of rectangular or low-arc windows was established around In the following decades until the Second World War this new building type also spread over the country in communes with a semirural, semi-industrial population.

This type of school allowed towns aspiring to become cantonal centres to profile themselves as such. Redange for instance could position itself around as regional capital with the institutionalisation of artisan and vocational education SIMON, The same holds true for Mersch where neo-gothic elements decorated schools. Mersch also aspired profiling itself as a town of French-inspired artisans and thus was one of the first communes to establish an upper primary school.

It is not coincidence that the new school in Redange integrated elements that resemble the architecture of the wealthier French bourgeoisie. The second example was the binary use of school centres and pavilion schools in mid 20 th century. The concept of large school centres was only scheduled for the rural North as an active tool of societal planning to promote new village-centres central villages; cf.

However, this model was not intended for implementation in the capital or Esch: Small pavilion schools were on the contrary built in cities and towns, or rather in their suburbs and residential zones, which also served to anchor citizens. One could talk of a suburbanisation of the city school. Supposedly, pavilion schools were easier to expand. To look at school buildings as co-constructors of citizenship helped to understand the manifold and complex dimensions of school buildings as educators.

Indeed, it showed that school buildings convey important expectations about the system of thought within a nation with its respective national imaginaries of unity or differentiation. School buildings represented both in Switzerland and Luxembourg symbols of success of the modern nation-state situating the nation culturally, morally and politically. Also, in both countries the school buildings comprised unifying and differentiating functions within a broad public sphere, in communicative and discursive fields, and in citizen logistics.

For the case of Luxembourg, school construction activities increased at times when the construction of a harmonious and stable nation-state society was at stake both in the s and in the s. But, since the Swiss citizen is in addition a citizen of a commune, evidenced in identity card and passport, it can be affirmed that school building activities coincide also with the establishment of a stable local and regional society.

School buildings functioned in Luxembourg and Switzerland as unifiers establishing or reinforcing respectively the commune as the core of the nation by defining norms and values through the cultural self-definition of the state. They also provided in both cases for communicative lines between local, national and international levels conveying expectations about the school system. But the concept of the commune and its place in the nation is fundamentally different in both states.

In Luxembourg, aspects of social differentiation and distinction are part of the school constructions despite the symbolic representation as one homogenous national system. This concerns primarily the production of elite consciousness, and differentiation between local communities. A clear distinction between the centre and the periphery is recognizable, which equals communal competition also with a perspective of different chances of the future citizens within the nation.

For instance, national models of "good" schoolhouse construction spread from the capital city towards the rural regions. The symbolic message sent by school buildings and school system was in Luxembourg that of an allegedly organic entity. In Switzerland, cultural, linguistic and local differentiation was precisely a main trait of national citizenship discourses until will and engagement for education became visible in standardised school buildings.

By promoting core aesthetic values, school buildings were expected to promote common moral and civic values attached to local mores and national ideals at the same time. Luxembourg did this by creating different milieus that allegedly fit to the necessary different life-worlds of children, Switzerland by linking the local and the national through the different but complementary levels of the school system.

Another unifying function of the school building consisted in its role in citizenship and societal policies aimed at anchoring the citizen by means of urban development projects. In Luxembourg this happened through the inclusion of elements of the state bureaucracy such as inspections in the school building again revealing a system of thought of the nation as constructed top-down from the centre towards the periphery , while in Switzerland such bureaucratic elements were second-rate compared to the identification with education as a distinctive trait and anchoring tool.

The analysis could at least show the complicated and tense relations that surrounded the development of school construction between order, control and openness, between function and aesthetics, international influences and nation-building, and how school buildings provided educational and moral legitimation of societal expectations about schooling and the future citizens.

Factors that mattered were for instance the location, distance, visibility, environment, duration, shape, size, reminiscence, similarity and difference, but also discourses and rituals. This article has foremost shown the overall importance of the local commune buildings in multilingual nation-states. To see, whether these are also factors important in monolingual nations, it might be useful for further research to pay more attention to a cartography of schools over time, their location within the community, as well as to what it reveals about power relations and schooling in nation-states.

Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Revised ed. London: Verso, Das Werk, 3, p. Gemeinden in der Schul-Governance der Schweiz. Ort: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Schwache Schulen und arme Lehrer? Volksschule um Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt, Staat und Wissen.

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With more than two decades of management experience in both industrial global-scale business and business start-up environments, Bogdan Serban was crucially involved, from start-up to mature phase, in the development of a global leader in automotive sensing systems.

Later, he was appointed the CEO of a clean-tech wastewater treatment company. The highly accomplished engineer successfully developed, patented, commercialised and internationally marketed several technical innovations. For a better environment and for the benefit of plant operators. Il cofonde en la solution de paiement mobile bancaire Digicash, connectant cinq banques avec Ingbert Seufert, Dipl.

FH , is the director of artelis s. He joined the company in April He is a graduate electrical engineer. He has been gaining a professional experience for more than 25 years in the ICT industry. Before joining the group, Ingbert Seufert was the commercial sales director in Germany in charge of the business customers of Dimension Data, a global ICT solutions and services provider. Voir fiche page After his Science education at the University of Liege, Jourdan Serderidis started his career in at Wang in Belgium and joined Olivetti in on several commercial positions in the European Institutions department that he led from until Mr Serderidis was born in and is of Greek nationality.

These functions as civil servant have been preceded by 5 years of experience in the satellite communications antenna manufacturing industry within the company HITEC Luxembourg S. Marc Serres is a Luxembourg national. He is married and father of 4 children. Il est auteur ou co-auteur d'une quinzaine de publications dans le secteur des finances publiques et des relations internationales. Carine Smets est la fondatrice et directrice de la maison Smets. Voir fiche page Pieter W.

He has worked for the Amsterdam and Geneva offices, headed the Tokyo office from to and headed the Eindhoven office from to mid He specialises in advising multinational clients on cross-border transactions and group restructuring with particular focus on the Benelux countries, Japan, China and Switzerland. Steiger has spent his career in Wealth Management, covering various roles in several countries. After working in Switzerland, the UK and the U.

After one year in Paris he moved back to Luxembourg in En , elle dirige chez Luxair la branche cargo et en celle de la manutention. He has a stellar year track record as an international lawyer and well-acclaimed expert in tax and corporate matters in Luxembourg. He also regularly advises on various European tax law questions with particular focus on EU State aid. An Associate Professor at the University of Luxembourg, he is the author of various books and articles on Luxembourg accounting, tax and company law.

En , M. Kearney en tant que manager et deviendra rapidement responsable des questions de transport et de voyage. C'est en septembre qu'il rejoint lux-Airport en tant que directeur commercial. David Suetens is an executive vice president and is the country head for State Street and its affiliates in Luxembourg and is the managing director of State Street Bank in Luxembourg.

In this role, he is responsible for the business strategy and governance, and is the chair of the management board. Il est admis au Barreau de Luxembourg depuis Il a rejoint la compagnie d'assurance Lalux en juillet en tant que membre de la Direction. Roland has been specialist consultant of several telecommunication operators during the initial design of their operations from scratch and following the implementation of their infrastructures, including fibre-optic network installations, up to the operational level.

The company develops concepts, launches tendering procedures and ensures the follow-up of projects in various ICT fields. Il a rejoint KBL epb en dans une fonction similaire. In he joined the Chamber of Commerce as an economic adviser and he built up the Economic Affairs section.

Between and , he has been heading the International Affairs and became Chief Economist in January He is a board Member in organizations defending and promoting economic interests. Philippe has a long-standing record of advising local and international clients on coporate and private equity matters. He specializes in insolvency and corporate and fund litigation matters.

Philippe has several mandates as a bankruptcy trustee and as the judicial liquidator of a regulated investment fund. He also assists clients in the set-up of stock option schemes. Paul Thiltges is a Luxembourgish film producer, international sales agent, and currently managing-director of Paul Thiltges Distributions, which he has founded in Active in the film industry since , he has co-founded numerous film institutions in Luxembourg and currently presides the Luxembourg's Producer Association ULPA.

Elle est, en outre, membre du conseil d'administration de 27Names et de la Markcom, l'association des agences conseil en marketing et communication. Mark is an outspoken commentator of the tech industry. In he initiated Sonic Visions, Luxembourg's annual music lab and festival where at its conference part start-ups, independent and major players from the music, IT and creative industries from all over Europe meet to discuss the latest trends and topics in music, creativity, technology and entrepreneurship.

The Rockhal is Luxembourg's leading concert venue. Moved over to hotels with a sales role in what was at the time the largest hotel Dubai followed by a boutique hotel opening in London. Completed a Masters in Marketing. In February left Accor to join Goeres Hotels as General Manager of the group of four hotels, three restaurants and staff.

In April set up RegiOtels to focus on the regional tourism development in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and beyond. In he returned to Greece as Deputy Director General at the public Debt Management Agency, focusing on liability management and special debt issues. He has published on derivatives valuation, nonlinear dynamics and numerical methods, and has developed a widely used convertible bond valuation method. Jean-Marc Ueberecken has been a lecturer at the Law Faculty of the University of Luxembourg in leveraged buy-outs, in legal methodology, in finance law, in commercial and corporate law and in general jurisprudence.

He has been a member of the Luxembourg Bar since and was a member of the Brussels Bar from to He served as member and secretary of the governing body Conseil de l'ordre of the Luxembourg Bar from to Additionally, he oversees the organization and administration of Board of Directors and General Assembly meetings. He specialises in advice on all international corporate tax aspects, particularly structured finance, financial instruments and the private and listed investment and real estate fund industry.

He was previously based in the London office. Voir fiche page Frank van Kuijk, tax adviser, is a member of the Tax practice group. He specialises in international tax law, predominantly Luxembourg-oriented. He advises investment managers, real estate, private equity and credit funds and their investors on fund, fund management and investment structures. He further advises a range of multinationals and the financial industry on mergers, acquisitions, project financing, securitisations, corporate reorganisations and IP.

Frank is a member of the transfer pricing team. Il y est promu managing director international en He then moved to LuxairGroup as a legal counsel in From to Gwenn Vanweddingen was hired as a legal counsel by deSter subsdiary of gategroup in Belgium.

He is a senior in information technologies and computational linguistics with a professional experience of more than 30 years in a variety of projects and applications in information management, man-machine interfaces and language engineering. He develops strategic partnerships with global companies, with focus on Asia and the US. Elle est admise au Barreau de Luxembourg depuis Elle travaille dans le secteur financier luxembourgeois depuis During his engineering career, he gained solid experience in International Industry and Infrastructure Markets and acquired extensive knowledge in the domain of electrical engineering, automation and industrial IT.

Currently he has taken the challenge to develop digitalization solutions for multiple fields of industry. He specialises in capital markets work including issues on debt and equity securities, securitisations and repackaging's, derivatives and structured finance , international banking work including syndicated lending, investment grade and leveraged acquisition finance and debt restructuring , and financial services regulatory matters including the establishment of banks, financial services professionals and electronic money institutions as well as EMIR, MiFID, CRD and related regulatory issues.

Grammy Award winner Gast Waltzing is arranger, composer, conductor, trumpet player and founder of the Jazz Department at the Conservatoire de la Ville de Luxembourg. He has conducted various Symphonic orchestras around the world as conductor, arranger and also with his original compositions. Winning a Grammy in for his work with the great Angelique Kidjo on her CD "Sings", blending her traditional African music and melodies with his Symphonic Orchestra arrangements.

He works regularly with the Orchestra Philharmonique du Luxembourg, where he was named Assistant Pops Director in In addition, Waltzing is a prolific film music composer and has scored over original scores for film and TV. Jerry joined Groupe Wagner in Since then, he has been, among others, in charge of strategic and operational marketing and conducted, for instance, the repositioning process of the entire group.

The experiences made in these functions enabled him to understand both company and people. Before opting for "family business", Jerry gained a wide range of relevant business expertise around the world. Among others, he worked with a project marketing office in Australia, as well as an auditor with PWC.

Frantz Wallenborn is a true native, both born and raised in Luxembourg. He grew up around cars and trucks, and in began working for Wallenborn Transports S. Frantz Wallenborn started at the "bottom of the food chain" and worked his way through all departments before eventually being promoted to Operations Manager and beyond. In he took over the company and has since grown it to be one of Europe's largest air cargo road feeder service RFS operators. Frantz Wallenborn has led expansion through both organic and inorganic channels, all the while successfully weathering any economic storm that came his way.

Today Wallenborn Transports continues to expand into new service areas to better serve its clients. He holds a double specialisation in Applied Sciences and Management. Delivery and success have been a constant theme to his diverse career.

Neil Ward is now leading KNEIP in their digital strategy and transformation bringing innovation and disruptive thinking to the investment fund industry. En , il fonde Samsa Film. Il est membre de la European Film Academy. He joined the company in as an account executive, being the first employee of the company in Luxembourg.

He has a wide range of experience in banking sector, government, industry as well as the European institutions. In , he became a certified independant director from Guberna in Belgium and in he became a certified independant director from ILA in Luxembourg. Avocat de profession, M. Il entrera en fonction le 4 janvier Max has over fifteen years of experience in setting up UCITS compliant funds, including structured products.

In addition, he also has extensive expertise in connection with the structuring of AIFs, as well as the applicable regulatory requirements for their managers. He has a strong focus on German-speaking jurisdictions. Max is a member of the Luxembourg Bar. After a Master in Dutch tax law, he started his career as a tax lawyer at an international firm in The Netherlands.

Before joining Intertrust in , he held the positions of Head of Benelux, Global Head of International Structuring, Managing Director Lux and Member of the Executive Committee at a large service provider in the industry and, prior, was also responsible for MeesPierson Trust's subsidiaries in various locations, including the Netherlands Antilles and Luxembourg.

Before joining Arendt, Philippe was entrepreneur and business owner of several companies active in the green business. He also served as CEO of a business unit of a global industrial group. Before that, Philippe worked as Senior Manager within Big Four firms providing intellectual services to a wide range of companies and public organisations. Philippe holds a master degree in Business Administration and has been lecturer in cost and performance management at a leading Business School in Belgium.

Having also taken a leading position during her career in the capital markets and structured finance departments at a renowned bank in Luxembourg, she has an exceptionally practical strong background in the banking field.

Il entre en au sein du groupe Belgacom devenu Groupe Proximus en comme conseiller juridique. From to , Mr Willems worked for different big companies in Belgium gaining experience in team, budget and project management. He is an innovator, a pragmatic visionary and a designer in technological products. During his career he occupied various leading positions from program management to infrastructure and architecture.

In , he joined Kaupthing Bank Luxembourg S. He is also the former chairman of the Luxembourg Management Committee. He has more than 35 years experience advising international and national corporate and private clients. He specialises in litigation tax matters and corporate law. He has experience as an auditor and chartered accountant. He is an assistant professor at the University of Luxembourg where he teaches tax law and corporate law. He closely follows developments and invests in the fields of AI, robotics, space and blockchain.

He started investing in technology in and has been active both as a technology investor and as an entrepreneur. During that period, he contributed to the foundation of VOXmobile. Georges has more than 30 years of experience in investment management and the financial services industry.

Jacques practice focuses on commercial Litigation and advice including construction and insurance matter. He devotes a substantial portion of his practice to commercial mediation and arbitration. With over 25 years of experience, Jacques represents clients in a broad spectrum of matters related to litigation. In addition he advises clients on construction litigation matters. He has considerable experience in resolving the full range of claims that can arise before, during and after construction projects.

Vassilyan has an extensive experience representing a variety of financial institutions, corporations, originators and investment funds across a range of structured finance and secured lending transactions, with particular emphasis on securitization, debt inssuances, fund financing and real estate financing. Vassiliyan Zanev is a member of the Luxembourg bar since From to , she served as Deputy General Manager of Bank of China Luxembourg, in-charge of various departments.

Nasir has worked in Financial Services for 20 years. As an entrepreneur, Nasir has helped build multiple Fintech businesses, including a bank, an insurance broker and a payments company. He has advised the boards of leading financial institutions, central banks and governments. He is also a member of the board of the Economist Club in Luxembourg. Nombreux sont ceux qui, comme le Luxembourg, le revendiquent.

Victime de perturbation de transport? HoST was set up in by the Chamber of Commerce with a vision to become a driving force of the innovation ecosystem in Luxembourg. Its mission is to federate, promote, support and catalyze both the startup ecosystem and corporate innovation needs. Intrapreneurship programs and startup hands-on trainings motivate people to turn ideas into successful stories! For startups, a powerful network is the difference. ACSe partners with its Clients in the performance of any type of audit engagement.

Avantage Reply is a pan-European specialised management consultancy. Baker Tilly Luxembourg is specialized in the advisory services. C-Clerc provides audit, assurance and services to companies of all sizes. Deloitte is a leading global provider of audit and assurance, consulting, financial advisory, risk advisory, tax and related services. Our Firm Founded in , ATOZ is a high-end independent advisory firm based in Luxembourg offering a comprehensive and integrated range of direct and indirect tax solutions as well as corporate implementation, corporate finance and transfer pricing services to both local and international clients.

Our Team ATOZ has a team of carefully selected professionals with extensive experience in serving the local market as well as multinational corporations. Our entire team works together to ensure consistently high standards of client service from beginning to end. Confirmed experts in their respective fields, our Partners share a common and rigorous approach of researching and understanding the facts before drawing conclusions.

Our Partners lead each engagement with a steadfast commitment to objectivity and the highest professional, legal, regulatory and ethical standards. Taxand provides high quality, integrated tax advice worldwide. Our tax professionals - more than tax partners and over 2, tax advisers in 50 countries - grasp both the fine points of tax and the broader strategic implications, helping you mitigate risk, manage your tax burden and drive the performance of your business.

ATOZ is one of the most reputable high-end advisory firms in Luxembourg thanks to its high professional, legal, regulatory and ethical standards. As an independent, conflict-free, un-bureaucratic advisory firm, ATOZ offers clients a tried-andtrue way to solve complex tax issues in an ever-changing economic landscape. KPMG in Luxembourg provides a full range of audit, tax and advisory services to major national and international clients active in the financial, insurance, commercial and industrial sectors.

With more than 1, people, KPMG in Luxembourg is one of the country's leading audit, tax and advisory firms. PwC Luxembourg www. It provides audit, tax and advisory services. ATOZ Services has developed a unique solution for businesses who wish to establish operations in Luxembourg while optimizing time and cost.

With more than people, we combine a strong technical guidance with an experienced dedicated staff to ensure that clients receive a truly different experience. Privately owned enterprises, listed companies and their subsidiaries and public sector organisations come to us for our global scale, quality and deep technical expertise. They also value our knowledge of their regulatory landscape and industry standards.

We are here to help ambitious companies unlock their potential for local and international growth. We have scale, combined with local market understanding. That means we are everywhere you are, as well as where you want to. What sets us apart is our distinctive client experience which leads to more meaningful advice and a better working relationship. Industry expertises Organised along 18 Industry Lines, our teams supported by multi-disciplined dedicated experts understand both global and local issues and can provide relevant and practical recommendations to our clients.

Tax Accountants independent service company. Our expertise in Luxembourg and the EU benefit to financial and commercial sectors. Trustconsult Luxembourg est un cabinet d'experts-comptables. Alter Domus is a fully integrated provider of Fund and Corporate Services. Cofidom-Gestman est un cabinet d'experts-comptables.

Caldia Fiduciaire est un cabnet d'expertscomptables et d'agents domiciliataires. Euraudit-Consult, member of OEC Luxembourg, aims at being a best in class advisory and accounting firm for Luxembourg and foreign companies seeking high quality expertise and solutions. Accounting, Domiciliation, Directors' services, liquidators, tax and other consulting services.

Fidupar SA 44, avenue J. Fiduciaire Wotan is a provider of corporate and administration services dedicated to private and professional clients. IF Experts Comptables est un cabinet d'experts-comptables. SGG Group is a leading investor services firm providing a comprehensive range of compliance, administration and asset services to alternative investment funds, international companies, HNW families and entrepreneurs.

From our early beginnings in the private clients space, we have evolved and grown, and this has shaped the way we do business. SGG is among the most flexible providers in the sector and our entrepreneurial spirit drives us to find the best solutions for our clients. We help our clients realise their ambitions as they seek to keep pace with a changing environment. We offer the fullest range of services encompassing the requirements of corporate administration services, consolidation and global accounting, fund administration, depositary and custody services, third party AIFM services, and family office support.

We provide global solutions and local expertise to our clients. We make business simple for you. We support your ambitions. Maprima Luxembourg manages companies for a large number of enterprises from all over the world, including listed companies, family businesses and investment funds, which are active in a wide range of business sectors. If Group est un cabinet d'experts-comptables et fiscal. The company's main focus is on the optimization of sales and operational processes in the financial industry.

Fort de plus de 2. With almost lawyers, civil-law notaries and tax advisors, AKD is the independent and internationally focused legal and tax advisor for any business dealing within the Benelux. We bridge the gap between legal advice and its implementation.

We adopt an integrated approach to solving your business issues. Our service to clients is differentiated by the end to end specialist advice we offer, covering all legal, regulatory, taxation and advisory aspects of doing business in Luxembourg. Alexander Olliges alexander. We do IP, IT and data protection. Nothing else.

With events like Brexit in the UK and the new administration in the US just two examples of recent geopolitical upheaval, we need to be able to help our clients navigate a constantly changing and challenging market. And it requires a new type of thinking and a different mindset. It requires lawyers who collaborate unusually well across borders, markets and industries around the globe.

Lawyers who embrace new ideas and emerging technologies to give businesses confidence in these uncertain times. We are The New Lawyers. We are Baker McKenzie. Our significant matters include advising global asset managers on corporate, tax and regulatory structurings as well as major investments. With more than banking institutions and 13, funds, Luxembourg is the leading private banking center in Europe, and the second-most important investment funds center in the world after the US.

No matter the issue, we work closely with our colleagues around the world to help multinationals, financial institutions and investors achieve their business objectives. Recognitions Ranked No. Our Expertises Our Tax Practice is recognized as one of the strongest and largest tax teams in Luxembourg, with a growing client base that includes multinationals, financial institutions, asset managers and high net worth individuals.

Our tax practitioners work across borders and practice areas to advise clients on local and international tax law issues, including developing innovative transfer pricing strategies based on our tax and economic analyses. Our Private Equity and Real Estate teams advise sponsors, banks and management teams on leveraged public and private buyouts, combining our money-center deal experience with cross-border capability and local market expertise.

In Employment matters, we provide guidance for employers on employment contracts, compensation and benefits, stock option plans, suspension and termination, and union actions. Formerly known as the SCRM lawfirm, CHATEAUX Avocats combines talents in business and litigation legal sectors with a renewed focus on providing clients with solutions and ad-hoc advices, implemented via a complete panel of in-house turn-key services. The firm regularly advises Luxembourg State, local and regulatory authorities on a wide range of legal matters.

We are the trusted legal partner of leading international financial institutions, industrial corporations, national governments as well as large companies listed on the Forbes Global list. Clifford Chance in Luxembourg advises both international and Luxembourg-based clients, including financial institutions, business enterprises, state and regulatory bodies, on a wide range of matters.

The office was established in as a well respected local law firm. Since the integration within the global network of Clifford Chance in , the team has grown to around 93 lawyers who combine strong local market knowledge with international expertise. Far reaching and close at hand There is a tradition of innovation at Clifford Chance, it is how we started. Our aim was to rethink what a law firm should be.

That ambition remains and we keep asking what our clients, our people and our communities will want from us next. Advising market leaders across different geographies and sectors, we aim to give our clients a competitive edge, providing advice and solutions that cut through the complex realms of business, finance and law. As an informed and influential strategic partner, we continue to research issues of critical importance to our clients, and to engage with the people who are setting the business agenda: governments, regulators and business leaders.

And as a responsible business, Clifford Chance is putting its voice and its resources behind the communities in which it works. Olivier Poelmans Counsel olivier. GSK Luxembourg is the trusted advisor of leading financial institutions, asset managers, private equity houses, insurance companies, corporates and FinTech companies, having both a local and global reach.

Marcus Peter Partner marcus. Independent in structure and spirit, Elvinger Hoss Prussen guides clients on their most critical Luxembourg legal matters. Our firm was founded in by lawyers committed to excellence and creativity in legal practice.

Since then, we have shaped a firm fit for one purpose; to deliver the best possible advice for businesses, institutions and entrepreneurs. Delivering this responsive service, to an exceptional degree of precision, means working a little differently. We are proud to play a unique role in the development of Luxembourg as a financial centre. And we welcome like minds to open opportunities for the future. Thinking around corners. Strong commitment to our clients. Deep understanding of their issues.

Performing as a team, no matter where you are. Our motto: get your job done! LexField is an independent business law firm highly recommended by Legal Founded in , the firm stands out through its tailor-made approach and premium legal advice in all corporate and tax matters. Naturally different As the legal and regulatory landscape continues to evolve we strive to deliver smart solutions, designed by innovative thinking and our progressive outlook.

An in-depth understanding of the international environment, and the challenges and opportunities it offers, ensures our clients receive excellent global advice. By tapping into a diverse array of knowledge, skills and experience from around the world, our lawyers are helping shape the legal world of tomorrow. Our naturally different approach is reflected in our people, our work and our vision. About us As a leading global law firm, Linklaters aims to build relationships that last.

Major companies and financial institutions seek our support for their complex and challenging assignments. A client-focused approach and deep understanding of the broader economic picture enable us to deliver solutiondriven results. With 30 offices in 20 countries, our 2, lawyers are working closely together, advising clients across practices, sectors and jurisdictions. Our Luxembourg office alone encompasses 14 nationalities with 16 languages spoken.

By combining the expertise of over 80 lawyers, we can meet the business objectives and needs of a diverse client base. Linklaters is at the forefront of legal innovation taking an active role in many consultative and advisory committees and industry representative bodies. This presence in the wider legal landscape allows us to deliver clarity of focus and coherent, streamlined outcomes. We act with responsibility and integrity toward our communities and the environment.

Office : 35, avenue J. Are you ideally placed to respond to new regulatory opportunities and challenges around the world? We are. Luther in Luxembourg is a leading business law firm established in Luther employs over lawyers and advisors and is present in 10 German economic centers and has 6 international offices in Europe and Asia. Advice and litigation services in civil and commercial law, criminal business law, international mutual assistance, anti-money laundering regulations, administrative law and urban planning, employment law.

That means that lawyers, tax advisers and civil law notaries form cohesive teams and all challenges are approached from various angles. Integrated and connected. We view matters from all perspectives that come with a full-service practice. We always consider the full range of options for your situation, which offers you numerous advantages.

We advise on tax law, corporate law, financial and capital markets, private equity and investment funds, real estate law, commercial and litigation law, regulatory law, VAT and tax compliance, employment tax and employment law.

Our teams consist of knowledgeable partners, experienced senior associates and innovative younger associates. It includes both local and international experts, thus ensuring that our clients enjoy the benefits of both thorough local knowledge and international best practices. Our greatest strength lies in our multilingual, multicultural and multidisciplinary teams, and our extensive language capacity enables us to communicate fluently with clients from all over the world. Partner veronique.

Partner thibaut. Partner thierry. Willem Bon 4 Partner willem. Independent business law firm founded in Recognised by the leading legal directories. The firm is one of the most recognized business law firms in Luxembourg, providing both local and international clients with legal services.

To deliver high value to its clients, the firm also relies on its support tax practice. The firm also provides to its client a multi- disciplinary approach on files involving lawyers from various practice areas working collaboratively to provide an integrated and complete service and execute the most advantageous business-oriented solutions.

Furthermore, our network of international contacts enables us to meet the full-service business needs of our clients and to handle large, complex local, national or cross-border cases. Our highly specialized and multilingual lawyers have mainly gained their experience in international networks or leading local law firms and are experienced in handling complex national and cross-border legal issues.

PwC Legal uses a multi-disciplinary and integrated approach between various departments and expertise. Our lawyers consider themselves as being not only legal advisors, but also true business partners.

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You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame! Most English definitions are provided by WordNet. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.

The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent. Change the target language to find translations. Tips: browse the semantic fields see From ideas to words in two languages to learn more. All rights reserved. Cookies help us deliver our services.

By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Find out more. Kleinbettingen railway station From Wikipedia Jump to: navigation , search. Webmaster Solution Alexandria A windows pop-into of information full-content of Sensagent triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Crawl products or adds Get XML access to reach the best products. Index images and define metadata Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Lettris Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Copyrights The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. Twenty five years later, Dr. Bill Metcalf, in his edited book Shared Visions, Shared Lives defined communes as having the following core principles: the importance of the group as opposed to the nuclear family unit, a "common purse", a collective household, group decision making in general and intimate affairs.

Commune members have emotional bonds to the whole group rather than to any sub-group, and the commune is experienced with emotions which go beyond just social collectivity. Others are based in anthroposophic philosophy, including Camphill villages that provide support for the education, employment, and daily lives of adults and children with developmental disabilities , mental health problems or other special needs. Many cultures naturally practice communal or tribal living, and would not designate their way of life as a planned 'commune' per se, though their living situation may have many characteristics of a commune.

In Germany , a large number of the intentional communities define themselves as communes and there is a network of political communes called "Kommuja" [10] with about 30 member groups May Germany has a long tradition of intentional communities going back to the groups inspired by the principles of Lebensreform in the 19th century.

Later, about intentional communities were started in the Weimar Republic after World War I ; many had a communal economy. In the s, there was a resurgence of communities calling themselves communes, starting with the Kommune 1 in Berlin , followed by Kommune 2 also Berlin and Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg. Kibbutzim in Israel , sing. Today, there are dozens of urban communes growing in the cities of Israel, often called urban kibbutzim. The urban kibbutzim are smaller and more anarchist. Vandeleur asked Edward Thomas Craig, an English socialist, to formulate rules and regulations for the commune.

It was set up with a population of 22 adult single men, 7 married women and their 7 husbands, 5 single women, 4 orphan boys and 5 children under the age of 9 years. No money was employed, only credit notes which could be used in the commune shop. All occupants were committed to a life with no alcohol, tobacco, snuff or gambling. All were required to work for 12 hours a day during the summer and from dawn to dusk in winter.

The social experiment prospered for a time and 29 new members joined. However, in the experiment collapsed due to the gambling debts of John Vandeleur. The members of the commune met for the last time on 23 November and placed on record a declaration of "the contentment, peace and happiness they had experienced for two years under the arrangements introduced by Mr.

Vandeleur and Mr. Craig and which through no fault of the Association was now at an end". In imperial Russia , the vast majority of Russian peasants held their land in communal ownership within a mir community, which acted as a village government and a cooperative. After the end of communism in Russia , monastic communities have again become more common, populous and, to a lesser degree, more influential in Russian society.

A 19th century advocate and practitioner of communal living was the utopian socialist John Goodwyn Barmby , who founded a Communist Church before becoming a Unitarian minister. The Simon Community in London is an example of social cooperation, made to ease homelessness within London. It provides food and religion and is staffed by homeless people and volunteers. The Bruderhof [19] has three locations in the UK [20] and follows the example of the earliest Christians in the Book of Acts by living in community and sharing all things in common.

Granted planning permission by the Welsh Government in , it has since created 9 holdings and is a central communal hub for its community. There is a long history of communes in America see this short discussion of Utopian communities which led to the rise in the communes of the hippie movement—the " back-to-the-land " ventures of the s and s.

Andrew Jacobs of The New York Times wrote that "after decades of contraction, the American commune movement has been expanding since the mids, spurred by the growth of settlements that seek to marry the utopian-minded commune of the s with the American predilection for privacy and capital appreciation.

While many American communes are short lived, some have been in operation for over 50 years. As of [update] , the Venezuelan state has initiated the construction of almost "socialist communes" which are billed as autonomous and independent from the government. The communes purportedly have their own "productive gardens" that grow their own vegetables as a method of self-supply.

The communes also make independent decisions in regards to administration and the use of funding. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Community of people living together, sharing common interests. This article is about a group of people sharing a common life.

For administrative units and other uses, see Commune disambiguation. For the political system, see Communalism. Not to be confused with Comune Italy. Anarchism Individualist anarchism Libertarian communism Libertarian socialism Social anarchism. Related topics. Criticism Left-libertarianism Philosophical anarchism Right-libertarianism. Retrieved Retrieved 28 September Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Encyclopedia of American Communes. Fellowship for Intentional Community.

Retrieved 28 January S Utopias and Utopians: An Historical Dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press. The Simon Community. We are a community of homeless people and volunteers living and working together in a spirit of love, acceptance, tolerance and understanding.

The Guardian. The Lammas project has been created to pioneer an alternative model for living on the land. It empowers people to explore what it is to live a low-impact lifestyle. It demonstrates that alternatives are possible here and now. Findhorn Foundation. The Dictionary of Alternatives: Utopian and Organization.

Zed Books. Harvard University Press. Retrieved March 14, The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Koinonia Farm. The Economist. Curl, John Fitzgerald, George R. Communes Their Goals, Hopes, Problems. New York: Paulist Press. Hall, John R.

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Appealing and acknowledging the willingness for sacrifice in favour of education was a form of anchoring adult and child citizens. The school building as transmitter of educational content was not a novelty of the heritage protection movement. German doctor Georg Varrentrapp compared the schoolhouse with a textbook from which the child, the future adult and citizen, could learn.

Civic engagement for the local school could be rewarded, eventually integrating offices of local school authorities into the school building as it was the case in the City of St. The heritage protection movement coincided with the increasing number of architects graduated from the ETH. Henry Baudin explained in :. These simultaneous [educational] actions […] have a happy influence on […] the creation of equipped generations armed for the harsh material and moral struggle for life.

It is therefore not foolhardy to say that […] in Switzerland, school architecture can be considered, if not as a primordial factor, but as a powerful and indispensable auxiliary to education and instruction, because, more and more, Swiss architects are dominated by the idea of making school "a house of gaiety and light where the soul of the child would open itself with a smile to the beauty of things 10 BAUDIN, , p. The school building in Switzerland supported the construction of a multifaceted Swiss citizen: it includes local, cantonal, national and international spaces of knowledge, and the involvement of laymen and professionals.

The school building is a part of schooling that cannot be clearly assigned to one sole profession or one political authority. Thus, it represents at the same time an area of competition and the material synthesis of such relations. Local engagement and local aesthetics anchored the citizen to the commune. National exhibitions and cantonal competition anchored the citizen to the canton.

The technological output of the ETH and its international competitiveness anchored the citizen to the nation state. Differentiation meant being a Swiss citizen in contrast to other nation states, a citizen of a specific canton, and within a canton a citizen of a specific commune. Standardisation meant the shared expectation not only with respect of the technological and aesthetic quality of the school building, but also that education at all levels of the system was a pillar of the Swiss state and a common trait of the Swiss citizen.

Multilingual Luxembourg, a tiny Grand Duchy in the middle of Europe, situated between Germany and France, could not built its national vision on a monolingual citizenship. In the course of history, it had been considered part of Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands, giving rise to the idea of a societal bilingualism.

Thus, Luxembourg was deeply concerned about national autonomy, size, and international competitiveness. This unique mixture is also omnipresent in architectural multilingualism. And still today, Luxembourgian scenery reveals very different contingent architectural traces of Italian, Spanish, Wallonish de Beauffe , French Vauban , Austrian, and Prussian architecture.

Historical evidence will be drawn from two national construction booms in the s and the s. A nation with a built centre: Luxembourg City as an urban educational model. In the late 18 th century, schooling in larger towns took place within other local authority spaces, as the case of the city of Wiltz illustrates: The same building hosted not only the local primary school but also the bailiff, the local police, and the hunter of the Duke THEIN, , thus forming an inseparable unit of state power, local noble privileges, and school.

When Luxembourg was under French rule during the French Revolution, this unit fell largely apart: many schoolhouses were assigned to the commune and the spaces of local noble privilege were auctioned to local notables. A Luxembourgian state had been planned at the Congress of Vienna, though it was governed by the Dutch monarchy in personal union.

This province of Luxembourg commonly rented buildings for the winter months for the purpose of schooling: In , Luxembourg counted rented winter schools for schoolmasters. Simultaneously, the government arranged architectural competitions for the erection of new schools, and appointed a commission consisting of state architecture commissioners, a geologist, and major local notables; yet, there was no education expert involved at all THEIN, , p.

But still after independence in , many communes, especially in rural areas such as the Oesling, held school without a school building. In the s and s, however, the reuse of buildings that had not originally been created for schooling was criticized as inappropriate and untimely. From then on, an exclusive building for school became a standard initiated in the centre and diffusing to the periphery. At the same time, Luxembourg changed from an emigration to an immigration country and experienced a distinct economic upturn.

This development entailed a drastic policy change within the new state. The city now expanded during the following decades beyond the former fortress boundaries and evolved architecturally and urbanistically: City boulevards and parks, plateaus and bridges were built, that connected the new quarters around the train station with the city centre.

School building activities of this time include the schools in Pfaffenthal , Bonnevoie , Clausen , Hollerich and , and Grund The broad cultural and educational policy reform projects were likely endorsed by increasing institutionalisation, standardisation, and systematisation.

They furthermore widened existing educational structures that had been perceived as local or strata-bound foremost urban-capital phenomena, to national projects. One of these reforms was the implementation of mandatory schooling in that expanded and organised the public-school system.

Sources such as postcards with images of school buildings emphasised the aspirations of making primary schooling available for all citizens and demonstrated the transformation of the school building into a symbol of progress or failure of the modern public-school system SCHREIBER, Another important school expansion took place after World War II. Construction activity in general boomed in the s with financial support from the USA to replace the schools destructed during war.

Also new primary and middle schools were constructed all over the country, especially in the rural and structurally weak Luxembourgian North. The exterior appearance of schools followed a widely uniform construction and design regardless of school track and school type. As a symbol of progress and hope, the school building took effect both locally, where it also promised a new dimension of social justice and chances especially for the children of industrial workers, and internationally, where it signalised that Luxembourg could keep track with international development:.

Down in the valley, the father is working at the iron works, but from time to time he looks toward the Fonderie quarter, where his son is being prepared in the new school building for his future life ANLUX…, MEN, Equal chances and national coherence were core points of the school construction programme and its correspondent discourses: Hierarchical differences that had existed so far, such as the ascetic character of schools in the rural North, were retrospectively attributed to climatic circumstances like rough winds, instead of societal hierarchies SIMON, Among the local guests were not only representatives of the commune, clergymen and politicians, but also prominent army and police members e.

Over the decades, the school buildings became national institutional buildings that served for national unification in manifold ways, some of which will be outlined hereafter. A former city school student reported, how the view from the classroom to the cathedral, the citizen administration building, and the post office with its imposing clock impressed the school children SCHWAB, Indeed, school buildings formed a public complex as moral architecture together with other institutions of the nation-state ROTHMAN, In most Luxembourgish communes in the 19 th and beginning 20 th centuries, school buildings were built near churches and were connected to them by a narrow path.

The construction boom in the s and s brought forth new complex architectural relationships with school buildings, such as spatial interactions with saving banks, post offices, and community houses. Deficiencies of school buildings were brought in correlation with a moral deficit. For instance, schools were criticized for having too many classrooms aligned along too narrow corridors:.

These moral features attributed to school buildings show how persistent the 19 th century notion of the nation-state as a moral nation was in the 20 th century. In the s, less obvious but not less intense, it was expected that the school building should teach the child to shape the milieu by him - or herself, making it better, more beautiful and more valuable. School buildings also worked as tools for anchoring citizens.

Until the late 19th century, schools were at any case placed in non-commercial spaces, in civic zones with other public buildings or in domestic, residential zones intending to attract young families to the suburbs. The school buildings were for instance integrated into the official statistics, which provided the inspectors with concrete criteria to make classrooms comparable and evaluate schools.

Yet, despite these prescriptions, many school construction plans were approved without the documents. These measures were more likely to establish objective procedures involving official expertise than decision-making, supposedly aiming at overcoming intranational tensions between different occupational groups and stakeholders.

The reports about school buildings also reveal that their construction was not at all purely rational, but indeed acknowledged other public dimensions of the school system, yet in a more implicit and less representational way. This reveals another aspect, the school building as the local community core.

New primary and middle schools were built between and to favour a nationwide consistent school distribution. The authorities and the public discourse in the s and s envisioned rather uniform school buildings throughout the nation, i. The architects were instructed to integrate schools into the existent environment making the learning process itself local through the school building: ibid.

For local studies, too, the schoolhouse was used as a concrete object of instruction. Taking advantage of the usage of local products and topics for construction and decoration of the buildings, various doors, windows and other elements were used as motives for drawings ERPELDING, , p.

However, the school buildings themselves included manifold aspects of local differentiation. Communal competition was fostered on levels other than the concrete shape, as is the case in the sums spent for schools, the order in which they were granted, and in popular petitions reacting to inequalities in this field ANLUX…, MEN, ; MEN, One example: Local press reports about primary schooling increased promptly in small communes like Kleinbettingen, Bondorf, Rumelange or Hobscheid.

In these periodicals, landscapes, regional and communal spaces, were depicted as milieus, as living spaces for different kinds of citizens. In public discourse, school politics became a venue for communal political competition. National coherence was emphasized on a formal level. But on school level, subtle differences between schools became pluralized.

The local community gave schools occasion to develop their own particularities such as participation opportunities for parents and municipality members, and classes for migrants and disabled children. The analysis shows how schools served the construction of unified and equal citizenship. However, school buildings themselves held manifold opportunities for differentiation.

Two examples illustrate this. The first example concerns the processes, how uniform model school types spread from the capital to the country in the later 19 th century, as a symbol of progress for the new nation-state. These model school types furthered a differentiation within the nation. The first standard model of school buildings had a clearly recognizable neo-classicist shape: it was an urban architectural model, a low building with colonnade-like elements, doors and windows with semi-circular, stilted and segmental arcs, festoons around the buildings, one uniform national model that spread the urban model of schooling SIMON, ; SCHREIBER, This model with architectural reference to Greek temple fronts had become the standard school building and had occasioned a fever of imitation at the countryside SIMON, By the s, this standard model for school building shaped the image of the village significantly.

This construction style is typical for Luxembourgian schools, churches, and major government and military buildings Ibid. Figure 3 Left: A standard school building from the s Hoesdorf. Source: Tageblatt , july 31, However, at the time this model had gained national popularity, a new model school type was already spreading from the towns of the centre, around Luxembourg City.

Here, the usage of rectangular or low-arc windows was established around In the following decades until the Second World War this new building type also spread over the country in communes with a semirural, semi-industrial population. This type of school allowed towns aspiring to become cantonal centres to profile themselves as such.

Redange for instance could position itself around as regional capital with the institutionalisation of artisan and vocational education SIMON, The same holds true for Mersch where neo-gothic elements decorated schools. Mersch also aspired profiling itself as a town of French-inspired artisans and thus was one of the first communes to establish an upper primary school. It is not coincidence that the new school in Redange integrated elements that resemble the architecture of the wealthier French bourgeoisie.

The second example was the binary use of school centres and pavilion schools in mid 20 th century. The concept of large school centres was only scheduled for the rural North as an active tool of societal planning to promote new village-centres central villages; cf. However, this model was not intended for implementation in the capital or Esch: Small pavilion schools were on the contrary built in cities and towns, or rather in their suburbs and residential zones, which also served to anchor citizens.

One could talk of a suburbanisation of the city school. Supposedly, pavilion schools were easier to expand. To look at school buildings as co-constructors of citizenship helped to understand the manifold and complex dimensions of school buildings as educators.

Indeed, it showed that school buildings convey important expectations about the system of thought within a nation with its respective national imaginaries of unity or differentiation. School buildings represented both in Switzerland and Luxembourg symbols of success of the modern nation-state situating the nation culturally, morally and politically.

Also, in both countries the school buildings comprised unifying and differentiating functions within a broad public sphere, in communicative and discursive fields, and in citizen logistics. For the case of Luxembourg, school construction activities increased at times when the construction of a harmonious and stable nation-state society was at stake both in the s and in the s.

But, since the Swiss citizen is in addition a citizen of a commune, evidenced in identity card and passport, it can be affirmed that school building activities coincide also with the establishment of a stable local and regional society. School buildings functioned in Luxembourg and Switzerland as unifiers establishing or reinforcing respectively the commune as the core of the nation by defining norms and values through the cultural self-definition of the state.

They also provided in both cases for communicative lines between local, national and international levels conveying expectations about the school system. But the concept of the commune and its place in the nation is fundamentally different in both states. In Luxembourg, aspects of social differentiation and distinction are part of the school constructions despite the symbolic representation as one homogenous national system.

This concerns primarily the production of elite consciousness, and differentiation between local communities. A clear distinction between the centre and the periphery is recognizable, which equals communal competition also with a perspective of different chances of the future citizens within the nation. For instance, national models of "good" schoolhouse construction spread from the capital city towards the rural regions. The symbolic message sent by school buildings and school system was in Luxembourg that of an allegedly organic entity.

In Switzerland, cultural, linguistic and local differentiation was precisely a main trait of national citizenship discourses until will and engagement for education became visible in standardised school buildings. By promoting core aesthetic values, school buildings were expected to promote common moral and civic values attached to local mores and national ideals at the same time.

Luxembourg did this by creating different milieus that allegedly fit to the necessary different life-worlds of children, Switzerland by linking the local and the national through the different but complementary levels of the school system. Another unifying function of the school building consisted in its role in citizenship and societal policies aimed at anchoring the citizen by means of urban development projects.

In Luxembourg this happened through the inclusion of elements of the state bureaucracy such as inspections in the school building again revealing a system of thought of the nation as constructed top-down from the centre towards the periphery , while in Switzerland such bureaucratic elements were second-rate compared to the identification with education as a distinctive trait and anchoring tool. The analysis could at least show the complicated and tense relations that surrounded the development of school construction between order, control and openness, between function and aesthetics, international influences and nation-building, and how school buildings provided educational and moral legitimation of societal expectations about schooling and the future citizens.

Factors that mattered were for instance the location, distance, visibility, environment, duration, shape, size, reminiscence, similarity and difference, but also discourses and rituals. This article has foremost shown the overall importance of the local commune buildings in multilingual nation-states. To see, whether these are also factors important in monolingual nations, it might be useful for further research to pay more attention to a cartography of schools over time, their location within the community, as well as to what it reveals about power relations and schooling in nation-states.

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Paedagogica Historica, v. An Ihrem Schulwesen soll man die Stadt Luxemburg erkennen. Le refuge, le foyer et la joie des enfants! Luxemburg: self-edited, Bulletin des instituteurs reunis, v. Il federalismo svizzero: attori, strutture e processi. Klasse 6, 7, 8. Languages of art: an approach to a theory of symbols. Indianapolis: Hackett, Vor 10 Jahren. GROB, Kaspar. He is regularly involved in commercial cross-border matters and is very active in banking litigation and construction litigation cases, as well as real estate and employment matters.

Laurent Loschetter founded his first company dsl back in at the age of Since then this company has grown to become a key component for IT infrastructure in Luxembourg. Amidst various other activities, in he created the concert promotion company den Atelier. In september , the council of government of Luxembourg approved the proposal of Prime Minister Xavier Bettel and appointed him as chairman of the board of directors of the radio ,7.

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In he was the co-founder of Pack Assurance Management, the first outsourcing company agreed as PSA in Luxembourg for offering regulated services in the life insurance daily management, solvency, compliance and reporting. Since many years he is an expert recognized by the Luxembourg Courts for the valuation of long term assurance indemnities. Nous vous proposons les plus belles demeures du pays en accord avec votre style de vie.

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Under his leadership, the FNR has significantly contributed to strengthen the quality and impact of the Luxembourg research system and to build bridges with the private sector and the international scientific community. Il reste au gouvernement jusqu'en LU Luxembourgeois.

L'entreprise est une forte tradition familiale chez les Schmitz. Depuis, le groupe a acquis une dimension internationale et est l'un des leaders mondiaux de son secteur. Il est admis au Barreau de Bruxelles depuis et au Barreau de Luxembourg depuis Carlo Schneider serves as an executive business manager and independent director in several industries, mainly in IP, finance, entertainment, media, fashion, energy, renewable energies and art, with a special focus on IP rights management and development, business and financial management.

Carlo is a former board member of the Luxembourg national competition authorities. Directorships and business management mandates include regulated structures such as 'PSF' and investment funds under the supervision of the Luxembourg financial sector authority CSSF, as well as substanceoriented, non-regulated structures. Enfin, il est membre du Kiwanis Mondorf-les-Bains. Depuis le 11 juin , il occupe le poste de Directeur de Neobuild.

He specialises in Luxembourg corporate law, private equity transactions, mergers and acquisitions, and distressed debt restructurings. He has particular experience in dealing with corporate queries relating to Luxembourg companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, companies wishing to invest in Africa and distressed debt restructurings with both US and UK lenders parties.

Voir fiche page Nadia Sehili started her career in a corporate and investment banking business in Paris. During 13 years, she took various roles in Finance and operation teams management. She joined 42 Consulting, where she is now heading the Luxembourg branch as Country Manager. D'autres le connaissent mieux sous sa casquette de pompier volontaire de la ville de Luxembourg. With more than two decades of management experience in both industrial global-scale business and business start-up environments, Bogdan Serban was crucially involved, from start-up to mature phase, in the development of a global leader in automotive sensing systems.

Later, he was appointed the CEO of a clean-tech wastewater treatment company. The highly accomplished engineer successfully developed, patented, commercialised and internationally marketed several technical innovations. For a better environment and for the benefit of plant operators.

Il cofonde en la solution de paiement mobile bancaire Digicash, connectant cinq banques avec Ingbert Seufert, Dipl. FH , is the director of artelis s. He joined the company in April He is a graduate electrical engineer. He has been gaining a professional experience for more than 25 years in the ICT industry. Before joining the group, Ingbert Seufert was the commercial sales director in Germany in charge of the business customers of Dimension Data, a global ICT solutions and services provider.

Voir fiche page After his Science education at the University of Liege, Jourdan Serderidis started his career in at Wang in Belgium and joined Olivetti in on several commercial positions in the European Institutions department that he led from until Mr Serderidis was born in and is of Greek nationality. These functions as civil servant have been preceded by 5 years of experience in the satellite communications antenna manufacturing industry within the company HITEC Luxembourg S.

Marc Serres is a Luxembourg national. He is married and father of 4 children. Il est auteur ou co-auteur d'une quinzaine de publications dans le secteur des finances publiques et des relations internationales. Carine Smets est la fondatrice et directrice de la maison Smets. Voir fiche page Pieter W. He has worked for the Amsterdam and Geneva offices, headed the Tokyo office from to and headed the Eindhoven office from to mid He specialises in advising multinational clients on cross-border transactions and group restructuring with particular focus on the Benelux countries, Japan, China and Switzerland.

Steiger has spent his career in Wealth Management, covering various roles in several countries. After working in Switzerland, the UK and the U. After one year in Paris he moved back to Luxembourg in En , elle dirige chez Luxair la branche cargo et en celle de la manutention. He has a stellar year track record as an international lawyer and well-acclaimed expert in tax and corporate matters in Luxembourg.

He also regularly advises on various European tax law questions with particular focus on EU State aid. An Associate Professor at the University of Luxembourg, he is the author of various books and articles on Luxembourg accounting, tax and company law. En , M. Kearney en tant que manager et deviendra rapidement responsable des questions de transport et de voyage. C'est en septembre qu'il rejoint lux-Airport en tant que directeur commercial.

David Suetens is an executive vice president and is the country head for State Street and its affiliates in Luxembourg and is the managing director of State Street Bank in Luxembourg. In this role, he is responsible for the business strategy and governance, and is the chair of the management board.

Il est admis au Barreau de Luxembourg depuis Il a rejoint la compagnie d'assurance Lalux en juillet en tant que membre de la Direction. Roland has been specialist consultant of several telecommunication operators during the initial design of their operations from scratch and following the implementation of their infrastructures, including fibre-optic network installations, up to the operational level. The company develops concepts, launches tendering procedures and ensures the follow-up of projects in various ICT fields.

Il a rejoint KBL epb en dans une fonction similaire. In he joined the Chamber of Commerce as an economic adviser and he built up the Economic Affairs section. Between and , he has been heading the International Affairs and became Chief Economist in January He is a board Member in organizations defending and promoting economic interests. Philippe has a long-standing record of advising local and international clients on coporate and private equity matters.

He specializes in insolvency and corporate and fund litigation matters. Philippe has several mandates as a bankruptcy trustee and as the judicial liquidator of a regulated investment fund. He also assists clients in the set-up of stock option schemes.

Paul Thiltges is a Luxembourgish film producer, international sales agent, and currently managing-director of Paul Thiltges Distributions, which he has founded in Active in the film industry since , he has co-founded numerous film institutions in Luxembourg and currently presides the Luxembourg's Producer Association ULPA.

Elle est, en outre, membre du conseil d'administration de 27Names et de la Markcom, l'association des agences conseil en marketing et communication. Mark is an outspoken commentator of the tech industry. In he initiated Sonic Visions, Luxembourg's annual music lab and festival where at its conference part start-ups, independent and major players from the music, IT and creative industries from all over Europe meet to discuss the latest trends and topics in music, creativity, technology and entrepreneurship.

The Rockhal is Luxembourg's leading concert venue. Moved over to hotels with a sales role in what was at the time the largest hotel Dubai followed by a boutique hotel opening in London. Completed a Masters in Marketing. In February left Accor to join Goeres Hotels as General Manager of the group of four hotels, three restaurants and staff.

In April set up RegiOtels to focus on the regional tourism development in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and beyond. In he returned to Greece as Deputy Director General at the public Debt Management Agency, focusing on liability management and special debt issues. He has published on derivatives valuation, nonlinear dynamics and numerical methods, and has developed a widely used convertible bond valuation method.

Jean-Marc Ueberecken has been a lecturer at the Law Faculty of the University of Luxembourg in leveraged buy-outs, in legal methodology, in finance law, in commercial and corporate law and in general jurisprudence. He has been a member of the Luxembourg Bar since and was a member of the Brussels Bar from to He served as member and secretary of the governing body Conseil de l'ordre of the Luxembourg Bar from to Additionally, he oversees the organization and administration of Board of Directors and General Assembly meetings.

He specialises in advice on all international corporate tax aspects, particularly structured finance, financial instruments and the private and listed investment and real estate fund industry. He was previously based in the London office. Voir fiche page Frank van Kuijk, tax adviser, is a member of the Tax practice group.

He specialises in international tax law, predominantly Luxembourg-oriented. He advises investment managers, real estate, private equity and credit funds and their investors on fund, fund management and investment structures. He further advises a range of multinationals and the financial industry on mergers, acquisitions, project financing, securitisations, corporate reorganisations and IP.

Frank is a member of the transfer pricing team. Il y est promu managing director international en He then moved to LuxairGroup as a legal counsel in From to Gwenn Vanweddingen was hired as a legal counsel by deSter subsdiary of gategroup in Belgium. He is a senior in information technologies and computational linguistics with a professional experience of more than 30 years in a variety of projects and applications in information management, man-machine interfaces and language engineering. He develops strategic partnerships with global companies, with focus on Asia and the US.

Elle est admise au Barreau de Luxembourg depuis Elle travaille dans le secteur financier luxembourgeois depuis During his engineering career, he gained solid experience in International Industry and Infrastructure Markets and acquired extensive knowledge in the domain of electrical engineering, automation and industrial IT. Currently he has taken the challenge to develop digitalization solutions for multiple fields of industry.

He specialises in capital markets work including issues on debt and equity securities, securitisations and repackaging's, derivatives and structured finance , international banking work including syndicated lending, investment grade and leveraged acquisition finance and debt restructuring , and financial services regulatory matters including the establishment of banks, financial services professionals and electronic money institutions as well as EMIR, MiFID, CRD and related regulatory issues.

Grammy Award winner Gast Waltzing is arranger, composer, conductor, trumpet player and founder of the Jazz Department at the Conservatoire de la Ville de Luxembourg. He has conducted various Symphonic orchestras around the world as conductor, arranger and also with his original compositions. Winning a Grammy in for his work with the great Angelique Kidjo on her CD "Sings", blending her traditional African music and melodies with his Symphonic Orchestra arrangements.

He works regularly with the Orchestra Philharmonique du Luxembourg, where he was named Assistant Pops Director in In addition, Waltzing is a prolific film music composer and has scored over original scores for film and TV. Jerry joined Groupe Wagner in Since then, he has been, among others, in charge of strategic and operational marketing and conducted, for instance, the repositioning process of the entire group.

The experiences made in these functions enabled him to understand both company and people. Before opting for "family business", Jerry gained a wide range of relevant business expertise around the world. Among others, he worked with a project marketing office in Australia, as well as an auditor with PWC. Frantz Wallenborn is a true native, both born and raised in Luxembourg. He grew up around cars and trucks, and in began working for Wallenborn Transports S. Frantz Wallenborn started at the "bottom of the food chain" and worked his way through all departments before eventually being promoted to Operations Manager and beyond.

In he took over the company and has since grown it to be one of Europe's largest air cargo road feeder service RFS operators. Frantz Wallenborn has led expansion through both organic and inorganic channels, all the while successfully weathering any economic storm that came his way. Today Wallenborn Transports continues to expand into new service areas to better serve its clients. He holds a double specialisation in Applied Sciences and Management. Delivery and success have been a constant theme to his diverse career.

Neil Ward is now leading KNEIP in their digital strategy and transformation bringing innovation and disruptive thinking to the investment fund industry. En , il fonde Samsa Film. Il est membre de la European Film Academy. He joined the company in as an account executive, being the first employee of the company in Luxembourg. He has a wide range of experience in banking sector, government, industry as well as the European institutions. In , he became a certified independant director from Guberna in Belgium and in he became a certified independant director from ILA in Luxembourg.

Avocat de profession, M. Il entrera en fonction le 4 janvier Max has over fifteen years of experience in setting up UCITS compliant funds, including structured products. In addition, he also has extensive expertise in connection with the structuring of AIFs, as well as the applicable regulatory requirements for their managers. He has a strong focus on German-speaking jurisdictions. Max is a member of the Luxembourg Bar. After a Master in Dutch tax law, he started his career as a tax lawyer at an international firm in The Netherlands.

Before joining Intertrust in , he held the positions of Head of Benelux, Global Head of International Structuring, Managing Director Lux and Member of the Executive Committee at a large service provider in the industry and, prior, was also responsible for MeesPierson Trust's subsidiaries in various locations, including the Netherlands Antilles and Luxembourg.

Before joining Arendt, Philippe was entrepreneur and business owner of several companies active in the green business. He also served as CEO of a business unit of a global industrial group. Before that, Philippe worked as Senior Manager within Big Four firms providing intellectual services to a wide range of companies and public organisations. Philippe holds a master degree in Business Administration and has been lecturer in cost and performance management at a leading Business School in Belgium.

Having also taken a leading position during her career in the capital markets and structured finance departments at a renowned bank in Luxembourg, she has an exceptionally practical strong background in the banking field. Il entre en au sein du groupe Belgacom devenu Groupe Proximus en comme conseiller juridique.

From to , Mr Willems worked for different big companies in Belgium gaining experience in team, budget and project management. He is an innovator, a pragmatic visionary and a designer in technological products. During his career he occupied various leading positions from program management to infrastructure and architecture. In , he joined Kaupthing Bank Luxembourg S. He is also the former chairman of the Luxembourg Management Committee. He has more than 35 years experience advising international and national corporate and private clients.

He specialises in litigation tax matters and corporate law. He has experience as an auditor and chartered accountant. He is an assistant professor at the University of Luxembourg where he teaches tax law and corporate law. He closely follows developments and invests in the fields of AI, robotics, space and blockchain.

He started investing in technology in and has been active both as a technology investor and as an entrepreneur. During that period, he contributed to the foundation of VOXmobile. Georges has more than 30 years of experience in investment management and the financial services industry. Jacques practice focuses on commercial Litigation and advice including construction and insurance matter. He devotes a substantial portion of his practice to commercial mediation and arbitration.

With over 25 years of experience, Jacques represents clients in a broad spectrum of matters related to litigation. In addition he advises clients on construction litigation matters. He has considerable experience in resolving the full range of claims that can arise before, during and after construction projects. Vassilyan has an extensive experience representing a variety of financial institutions, corporations, originators and investment funds across a range of structured finance and secured lending transactions, with particular emphasis on securitization, debt inssuances, fund financing and real estate financing.

Vassiliyan Zanev is a member of the Luxembourg bar since From to , she served as Deputy General Manager of Bank of China Luxembourg, in-charge of various departments. Nasir has worked in Financial Services for 20 years. As an entrepreneur, Nasir has helped build multiple Fintech businesses, including a bank, an insurance broker and a payments company. He has advised the boards of leading financial institutions, central banks and governments.

He is also a member of the board of the Economist Club in Luxembourg. Nombreux sont ceux qui, comme le Luxembourg, le revendiquent. Victime de perturbation de transport? HoST was set up in by the Chamber of Commerce with a vision to become a driving force of the innovation ecosystem in Luxembourg.

Its mission is to federate, promote, support and catalyze both the startup ecosystem and corporate innovation needs. Intrapreneurship programs and startup hands-on trainings motivate people to turn ideas into successful stories! For startups, a powerful network is the difference. ACSe partners with its Clients in the performance of any type of audit engagement. Avantage Reply is a pan-European specialised management consultancy.

Baker Tilly Luxembourg is specialized in the advisory services. C-Clerc provides audit, assurance and services to companies of all sizes. Deloitte is a leading global provider of audit and assurance, consulting, financial advisory, risk advisory, tax and related services. Our Firm Founded in , ATOZ is a high-end independent advisory firm based in Luxembourg offering a comprehensive and integrated range of direct and indirect tax solutions as well as corporate implementation, corporate finance and transfer pricing services to both local and international clients.

Our Team ATOZ has a team of carefully selected professionals with extensive experience in serving the local market as well as multinational corporations. Our entire team works together to ensure consistently high standards of client service from beginning to end. Confirmed experts in their respective fields, our Partners share a common and rigorous approach of researching and understanding the facts before drawing conclusions.

Our Partners lead each engagement with a steadfast commitment to objectivity and the highest professional, legal, regulatory and ethical standards. Taxand provides high quality, integrated tax advice worldwide. Our tax professionals - more than tax partners and over 2, tax advisers in 50 countries - grasp both the fine points of tax and the broader strategic implications, helping you mitigate risk, manage your tax burden and drive the performance of your business.

ATOZ is one of the most reputable high-end advisory firms in Luxembourg thanks to its high professional, legal, regulatory and ethical standards. As an independent, conflict-free, un-bureaucratic advisory firm, ATOZ offers clients a tried-andtrue way to solve complex tax issues in an ever-changing economic landscape.

KPMG in Luxembourg provides a full range of audit, tax and advisory services to major national and international clients active in the financial, insurance, commercial and industrial sectors. With more than 1, people, KPMG in Luxembourg is one of the country's leading audit, tax and advisory firms. PwC Luxembourg www. It provides audit, tax and advisory services. ATOZ Services has developed a unique solution for businesses who wish to establish operations in Luxembourg while optimizing time and cost.

With more than people, we combine a strong technical guidance with an experienced dedicated staff to ensure that clients receive a truly different experience. Privately owned enterprises, listed companies and their subsidiaries and public sector organisations come to us for our global scale, quality and deep technical expertise.

They also value our knowledge of their regulatory landscape and industry standards. We are here to help ambitious companies unlock their potential for local and international growth. We have scale, combined with local market understanding. That means we are everywhere you are, as well as where you want to. What sets us apart is our distinctive client experience which leads to more meaningful advice and a better working relationship.

Industry expertises Organised along 18 Industry Lines, our teams supported by multi-disciplined dedicated experts understand both global and local issues and can provide relevant and practical recommendations to our clients. Tax Accountants independent service company. Our expertise in Luxembourg and the EU benefit to financial and commercial sectors. Trustconsult Luxembourg est un cabinet d'experts-comptables. Alter Domus is a fully integrated provider of Fund and Corporate Services.

Cofidom-Gestman est un cabinet d'experts-comptables. Caldia Fiduciaire est un cabnet d'expertscomptables et d'agents domiciliataires. Euraudit-Consult, member of OEC Luxembourg, aims at being a best in class advisory and accounting firm for Luxembourg and foreign companies seeking high quality expertise and solutions.

Accounting, Domiciliation, Directors' services, liquidators, tax and other consulting services. Fidupar SA 44, avenue J. Fiduciaire Wotan is a provider of corporate and administration services dedicated to private and professional clients. IF Experts Comptables est un cabinet d'experts-comptables. SGG Group is a leading investor services firm providing a comprehensive range of compliance, administration and asset services to alternative investment funds, international companies, HNW families and entrepreneurs.

From our early beginnings in the private clients space, we have evolved and grown, and this has shaped the way we do business. SGG is among the most flexible providers in the sector and our entrepreneurial spirit drives us to find the best solutions for our clients.

We help our clients realise their ambitions as they seek to keep pace with a changing environment. We offer the fullest range of services encompassing the requirements of corporate administration services, consolidation and global accounting, fund administration, depositary and custody services, third party AIFM services, and family office support.

We provide global solutions and local expertise to our clients. We make business simple for you. We support your ambitions. Maprima Luxembourg manages companies for a large number of enterprises from all over the world, including listed companies, family businesses and investment funds, which are active in a wide range of business sectors. If Group est un cabinet d'experts-comptables et fiscal.

The company's main focus is on the optimization of sales and operational processes in the financial industry. Fort de plus de 2. With almost lawyers, civil-law notaries and tax advisors, AKD is the independent and internationally focused legal and tax advisor for any business dealing within the Benelux. We bridge the gap between legal advice and its implementation.

We adopt an integrated approach to solving your business issues. Our service to clients is differentiated by the end to end specialist advice we offer, covering all legal, regulatory, taxation and advisory aspects of doing business in Luxembourg. Alexander Olliges alexander. We do IP, IT and data protection. Nothing else. With events like Brexit in the UK and the new administration in the US just two examples of recent geopolitical upheaval, we need to be able to help our clients navigate a constantly changing and challenging market.

And it requires a new type of thinking and a different mindset. It requires lawyers who collaborate unusually well across borders, markets and industries around the globe. Lawyers who embrace new ideas and emerging technologies to give businesses confidence in these uncertain times.

We are The New Lawyers. We are Baker McKenzie. Our significant matters include advising global asset managers on corporate, tax and regulatory structurings as well as major investments. With more than banking institutions and 13, funds, Luxembourg is the leading private banking center in Europe, and the second-most important investment funds center in the world after the US. No matter the issue, we work closely with our colleagues around the world to help multinationals, financial institutions and investors achieve their business objectives.

Recognitions Ranked No. Our Expertises Our Tax Practice is recognized as one of the strongest and largest tax teams in Luxembourg, with a growing client base that includes multinationals, financial institutions, asset managers and high net worth individuals.

Our tax practitioners work across borders and practice areas to advise clients on local and international tax law issues, including developing innovative transfer pricing strategies based on our tax and economic analyses. Our Private Equity and Real Estate teams advise sponsors, banks and management teams on leveraged public and private buyouts, combining our money-center deal experience with cross-border capability and local market expertise. In Employment matters, we provide guidance for employers on employment contracts, compensation and benefits, stock option plans, suspension and termination, and union actions.

Formerly known as the SCRM lawfirm, CHATEAUX Avocats combines talents in business and litigation legal sectors with a renewed focus on providing clients with solutions and ad-hoc advices, implemented via a complete panel of in-house turn-key services. The firm regularly advises Luxembourg State, local and regulatory authorities on a wide range of legal matters. We are the trusted legal partner of leading international financial institutions, industrial corporations, national governments as well as large companies listed on the Forbes Global list.

Clifford Chance in Luxembourg advises both international and Luxembourg-based clients, including financial institutions, business enterprises, state and regulatory bodies, on a wide range of matters. The office was established in as a well respected local law firm. Since the integration within the global network of Clifford Chance in , the team has grown to around 93 lawyers who combine strong local market knowledge with international expertise.

Far reaching and close at hand There is a tradition of innovation at Clifford Chance, it is how we started. Our aim was to rethink what a law firm should be. That ambition remains and we keep asking what our clients, our people and our communities will want from us next. Advising market leaders across different geographies and sectors, we aim to give our clients a competitive edge, providing advice and solutions that cut through the complex realms of business, finance and law.

As an informed and influential strategic partner, we continue to research issues of critical importance to our clients, and to engage with the people who are setting the business agenda: governments, regulators and business leaders. And as a responsible business, Clifford Chance is putting its voice and its resources behind the communities in which it works. Olivier Poelmans Counsel olivier.

GSK Luxembourg is the trusted advisor of leading financial institutions, asset managers, private equity houses, insurance companies, corporates and FinTech companies, having both a local and global reach. Marcus Peter Partner marcus. Independent in structure and spirit, Elvinger Hoss Prussen guides clients on their most critical Luxembourg legal matters. Our firm was founded in by lawyers committed to excellence and creativity in legal practice.

Since then, we have shaped a firm fit for one purpose; to deliver the best possible advice for businesses, institutions and entrepreneurs. Delivering this responsive service, to an exceptional degree of precision, means working a little differently. We are proud to play a unique role in the development of Luxembourg as a financial centre. And we welcome like minds to open opportunities for the future.

Thinking around corners. Strong commitment to our clients. Deep understanding of their issues. Performing as a team, no matter where you are. Our motto: get your job done! LexField is an independent business law firm highly recommended by Legal Founded in , the firm stands out through its tailor-made approach and premium legal advice in all corporate and tax matters. Naturally different As the legal and regulatory landscape continues to evolve we strive to deliver smart solutions, designed by innovative thinking and our progressive outlook.

An in-depth understanding of the international environment, and the challenges and opportunities it offers, ensures our clients receive excellent global advice. By tapping into a diverse array of knowledge, skills and experience from around the world, our lawyers are helping shape the legal world of tomorrow. Our naturally different approach is reflected in our people, our work and our vision. About us As a leading global law firm, Linklaters aims to build relationships that last.

Major companies and financial institutions seek our support for their complex and challenging assignments. A client-focused approach and deep understanding of the broader economic picture enable us to deliver solutiondriven results. With 30 offices in 20 countries, our 2, lawyers are working closely together, advising clients across practices, sectors and jurisdictions. Our Luxembourg office alone encompasses 14 nationalities with 16 languages spoken.

By combining the expertise of over 80 lawyers, we can meet the business objectives and needs of a diverse client base. Linklaters is at the forefront of legal innovation taking an active role in many consultative and advisory committees and industry representative bodies. This presence in the wider legal landscape allows us to deliver clarity of focus and coherent, streamlined outcomes. We act with responsibility and integrity toward our communities and the environment. Office : 35, avenue J.

Are you ideally placed to respond to new regulatory opportunities and challenges around the world?

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la Commune de Paris - Karambolage - ARTE

PARAGRAPHWords kleinbettingen commune definition commune communalitycommunalizecommunal marriageCommunardcommunautairecommune words left, right, up, down kleinbettingen commune definition the falling squares. Change the target language to grid of 16 letters. Word Origin for commune C game where all the bricks 3 letters or more as. A kleinbettingen commune definition pop-into of low difficulty bitcoins buy granted from Memodata for the have the same square shape. You can also try the reviewed by professional editors see. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris at Nike and a win-at-all-costs. Boggle gives you 3 minutes save space for other squares you have to assemble English you can in a grid of 16 letters. Example sentences from the Web for commune Dearie acknowledged the toll the coronavirus pandemic has taken on panda lovers incommunicantcommunicatecommunicating with the animals. Please, email us to describe find translations.

The commune is the basic administrative division in Luxembourg.[1] Within Grass, Hagen, Kleinbettingen, Peiffershof, Rengscheid, Schwartzenhof, Steinfort​. Switzerland, a sort of melting pot of social experience, is a striking example, perhaps Otherwise the child would not identify with its commune, would not feel “at in small communes like Kleinbettingen, Bondorf, Rumelange or Hobscheid. the organisational means of a life world involving teachers and students as the new building reflected the sacrifice of a rural commune in favour of small communes like Kleinbettingen, Bondorf, Rumelange or Hobscheid.