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The interest rate used was 8. Formulation of the regulation model generated a problem with 8, decision variables. In all forest regulation problems, satisfactory results were obtained for the regulation constraints and annual volume variation. The IAC value for the model, with and without inclusion of the adjacency constraint, was 0. Using models with IAC minimization resulted in an index of 0.

Such changes added characteristics even more complex and difficult to solve to forest regulation models. Preference for scenically beautiful landscapes is a value inherent in people and such values vary from one socioeconomic group to another. Inclusion of environmental and landscape restrictions is mainly done by imposing adjacency constraints. Constraints consist of controlling interactions between management units within a forest in such way that harvest activities in one management unit will restrict harvest actions in neighboring or adjacent units MURRAY; CHURCH, They also prevent formation of large contiguous harvested areas.

Imposition of constraints entails a considerably increased computational effort, requiring long hours, if not days, to solve problems with relatively few management units using classic integer programming algorithms MCDILL; BRAZE, For this reason, many research studies have been conducted to try and reduce the processing time involved in solving such problems.

Adjacency constraints were originally formulated by Thompson et al. Besides the considerable dimension a regulation model acquires with imposition of this type of constraint, obtaining a feasible solution to the problem while meeting all constraints is many a time unenforceable. The index used for models comparison is extremely simple and easy to obtain with application of Geographic Information Systems GIS or mapping techniques.

The index was found to be consistent with assumptions adopted for management of even-aged plantation landscapes. The index is directly proportional to the area under intervention and inversely proportional to the distance between management units under intervention, weighted by the annual harvest area.

In practical terms, the closer it is to zero, the better the environmental and socioeconomic influences will be on neighboring communities and ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to introduce alternative methods for solving regulation problems with inclusion of environmental and landscape constraints.

IAC minimization revealed economic and environmental superiority in relation to the model with adjacency constraints. The reduction in the magnitude of the regulation model, the ease of modeling and the increased environmental benefits did favor IAC minimization as an alternative for forest regulation models. Interactive spatial data analysis. London: A. Longman, Characterising spatial structure of forest landscape. Canadian Journal of Forest Research , Ottawa, v. Forest landscape management modelling using simulated annealing.

Forest Ecology and Management , Amsterdam, v. Spatial forest planning: a review. Ecological Modelling , Amsterdam, v. Forest management and planning. New York: Elsevier, Eight heuristic planning techniques applied to three increasingly diffcult wildlife planning problems. Silva Fennica , Helsinski, v. Spatial forest plan development with ecological and economic goals. Combining a decomposition strategy with dynamic programming to solve spatially constrained forest management scheduling problems.

Forest Science , Bethesda, v. The economic impact of green-up constraints in the southeastern United States. European Journal of Operational Research , Amsterdam, v. CARO, F. CHEN, V. Timber harvest planning with spatial objectives, using the method of simulated annealing. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt , Berlin, v. An indirect search algorithm for harvest scheduling under adjacency constraints.

Scheduling spatial arrangement and harvest simultaneouly. Designing green landscapes. New York: Springer, Springer Series "Managing. Forest Ecosystems", Using dynamic programming and overlapping subproblems to address adjacency in large harvest scheduling problems. Landscape Ecology , Dordrecht, v. Techniques for prescribing optimal timber harvest and investment under different objectives discussion and synthesis.

Forest Science Monograph, The performance of alternative spatial objective types in forest planning calculations: a case for flying squirrel and moose. Introduction to forest resource management. New York: J. Wiley, Comparing adjacency constraint formulations for randomly generated forest planning problems with four age-class distributions. The design of a genetic algorithm based spatially constrained timber harvest scheduling model.

Acesso em: 10 dez. Analyzing cliques for imposing adjacency restrictions in forest models. Heuristic solution approaches to operational forest planning problems. Operation Research Spektrum , Berlin, v. Langley and L. Li and L. Ye and D. MacKinnon-Cameron and K. Top and S. McNeil and B. Halperin and A. Swain and J. Bettinger and E. De Serres and S. Halperin DOI: Bettinger and Mark F.

Wright DOI: Slogrove and Monika M. Esser and Mark F. Cotton and David P. Speert and Tobias R. Kollmann and Joel Singer and Julie A. Bettinger DOI: Health information assessment by vaccine hesitant parents Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology Greyson, D. Halperin and Karina A. Top DOI: Vaccine acceptance, hesitancy and refusal in Canada: Challenges and potential approaches.

Do Dose Numbers Matter? Bettinger and Otto G. Vanderkooi and David W. Scheifele and Scott A. Halperin and James D. Tran and W. Vaudry and D. Moore and J. Bettinger and S. Halperin and D. Scheifele and T. Jadvji and L. Lee and T. Rapid surveillance for health events following a mass meningococcal B vaccine program in a university setting: A Canadian Immunization Research Network study Vaccine J. Langley and D. MacDougall and B. Swain and S. Halperin and K. McNeil and D. Marty and G.

De Serres and E. Heffernan and Samantha Meyer and S. Slogrove and Tessa Goetghebuer and Mark F. Cotton and Joel Singer and Julie A. Deeks and Natasha Crowcroft and Julie A. Impact of neuraminidase inhibitors on influenza A H1N1 pdmrelated pneumonia: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Influenza and other respiratory viruses DOI: Carpiano and Julie A. Vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and refusal in Canada: Challenges and potential approaches Canada Communicable Disease Report Pereira and Susan Quach and Julie A.

Bettinger and Jeffrey C. Canadian vaccine research networks: Vaccine safety resources for Canada. Sadarangani and D. Scheifele and S. Halperin and W. Vaudry and N. Le Saux and R. Tsang and J. Bettinger and investigators of the Canadian Immunization and N. Bridger and R. Morris and S. Top and P. Dery and D. Moore and M. Lebel and N. Le Saux and D. Tran and L.

Ford-Jones and J. Embree and B. Law and R. Tsang and B. Tan and W. Vaudry and T. Jadavji and O. Vanderkooi and D. Scheifele and L. Sauve and J. Successful methodology for large-scale surveillance of severe events following influenza vaccination in Canada, and Eurosurveillance Bettinger, J. Law and Wendy Vaudry and Scott A. Halperin and Julie A. Kellner DOI: Bettinger and N. Bettinger and Dat Tran and Scott A. Halperin and David W. Scheifele DOI: Slogrove and J.

Canada Communicable Disease Report Applicability of the Brighton Collaboration Case Definition for seizure after immunization in active and passive surveillance in Canada Vaccine Karina A. Top and Cora M. Bettinger and David W. Scheifele and Wendy Vaudry and Scott A. Halperin and Barbara J. Law DOI: Scheifele and Shelly A. McNeil and Brian J. Bettinger and Scott A. Immunizing health care workers against influenza: A glimpse into the challenges with voluntary programs and considerations for mandatory policies American Journal of Infection Control Susan Quach and Jennifer A.

Pereira and Jeffrey C. Pereira and Christine L. Heidebrecht and Jeffrey C. Vaccine hesitancy: An overview. Scheifele and Tobias R. Kollmann and Scott A. Halperin and Joanne M. Langley and Julie A. Al-Dabbagh and K. Lapphra and D. Halperin and J. Langley and P. Cho and T. Kollmann and Y.

Li and G. Fortuno and J. Measuring influenza immunization coverage among health care workers in acute care hospitals and continuing care organizations in Canada American Journal of Infection Control Susan Quach and Jennifer A. Pereira and Jemila S. Hamid and Lois Crowe and Christine L. Kwong and Maryse Guay and Natasha S. Chambers and Sherman D. Quan and Julie A. How best to describe the risk of meningococcal B infection?

Determinants of parents' decision to vaccinate their children against rotavirus: results of a longitudinal study Health Education Research E. Dube and J. Bettinger and B. Halperin and R. Bradet and F. Lavoie and C. Sauvageau and V. Gilca and N. Boulianne DOI: Evaluation of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine programs in Canadian children: Interim analysis Vaccine Julie A. Kellner and Otto G.

Regulation of even-aged forests with inclusion of environmental constraints.

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Giro stage 11 betting advice Law and R. Prevalence of Toll-like receptor signalling defects in apparently healthy children who developed invasive pneumococcal infection Clinical Immunology Aaron F. Kollmann and Joel Singer and Julie A. Deeks and Natasha Crowcroft and Julie A. MacDougall and J.
Mauro betting sai bandaboina Then we'll take a closer look at what vaccines are and how they work, jordan bettinger learn about their profound impact on society. McNeil and B. Rotavirus serotypes results from an impact emergency department study Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology Cotton and J. Combining a decomposition strategy with dynamic programming to solve spatially constrained forest management scheduling problems. Pereira and Jeffrey C.
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For comparison purposes, the classical model of forest regulation model I was used, and the model with adjacency constraints. The proposed formulations proved to be environmentally more effective than the imposition of adjacency constraints. Key words: Genetic algorithms, adjacency constraints, eucalypt.

Forest management involves an integrated combination of silvicultural practices and economic concepts aimed at ensuring the objectives of producers are met BETTINGER et al. The main challenge of forest management plans today is that they have to continually adapt to environmental changes and social circumstances. This is not trivial since forest growth is a slow process and, therefore, making rapid changes to species and clone composition or to diameter structure and many other traits that affect both the quality and the quantity of services, is usually impossible to achieve GADOW; PUKKALA, When establishing a management plan, the selection of silvicultural activities in each management unit will be dependent on the characteristics of neighboring units.

Such orientation is achieved by applying green-up, adjacency or connectivity constraints. Adjacency constraints seek to minimize environmental impacts brought about by the destruction of natural habitats, thereby preventing harvest in adjacent or extensive contiguous areas while providing shelter and food to animal populations living in the managed forest and also mitigating the visual impacts caused by harvest-related activities CASTRO, ; MOREIRA, Such constraints assume that the management unit will regenerate in less than one year.

Adjacency constraints were originally proposed by Thompson et al. Where management units have different conformations as to shape and size, the distance between them could be used as a condition for determining the adjacencies HURME et al. Due to the interdependent nature and complexity of the correlations between the variables, regulation models with integer variables are potentially impossible to solve using classic mathematical programming methods MCDILL; BRAZE, As a result, many research studies have been suggesting use of heuristic techniques to solve such problems BORGES et al.

Some findings suggest that genetic algorithms are more effective than other search heuristics in solving problems with complex spatial objectives. On account of the complexity of regulation models with spatial constraints, this study was designed to assess and solve a mathematical regulation model ultimately looking to reduce the negative environmental impacts of a forest enterprise.

Mathematical models were formulated in order to:. Data were obtained from an experimental rural estate where a case study was implemented to represent a situation found in a forest company of central-eastern Minas Gerais state. The total area of the rural estate is around 9. The site was divided into management units according to administrative, soil, climate and physiographic traits. The distribution of the management units and respective age classes are illustrated in Figure 1.

The model was formulated using the optimized forest planning system SifPlan www. The approach adopted for generating management units was that of model I, according to Johnson and Scheurman , using binary variables for the decision variables, as is illustrated next.

According to this integer programming model, maximization of Z 1 is subject to singularity constraints 2 and 6 and to minimum 3 and maximum 4 outputs in each period of the planning horizon. Constraint 5 ensures establishment of the forest regulation.

The planning horizon was defined as with 1. Interventions in stands included harvest, immediately followed by replanting, or harvest with replanting in the next period, meaning that only one management regime was evaluated high forest. Harvest age was made possible to vary between years within the planning horizon, with a regulatory rotation length of 6 years.

For purposes of comparison, the same model was obtained without inclusion of adjacency constraints and age class constraints restrictions per cell. The optimization procedure was performed using genetic algorithm metaheuristic GA , with a computational routine developed in the programming environment Visual Basic for Applications combined with Software Microsoft Excel. The initial population of the GA consisted of 30 randomly generated individuals, considering the viability of each solution by the singularity constraint.

The evolution of the genetic algorithm depends on mechanisms known as genetic operators which are responsible for changes in the population, generating improved populations over time. Multiple-point crossover and a mutation rate of 0. The algorithm run was terminated when, with fitness stabilized, the GA produced 20 new generations. Among the various metrics described in literature for assessing landscape management BASKENT; JORDAN, , the choice in this study was to assess the effect of adjacency constraint by the weighted average of the square of the inverse of the smallest distance between the management units harvested in the same period, subject to the square areas of the management units under intervention.

The index used was:. A model was developed for comparison in which classic adjacency restrictions were applied. Due to the very rugged relief of the study site, the management units were considered to be adjacent when the distance between their boundaries edges was 50 m or less.

The adjacency constraint to avoid harvest in adjacent management units was:. IAC minimization was used as objective function. Optimization was done using genetic logarithm metaheuristic, the fitness function being as follows:. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm used in this model was based on application of penalties to the objective function, consisting of maximizing the total net present value.

The fitness function used for this model was:. One hybrid clone Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis was considered as being the sole source of timber used. The output curve obtained from plot data of a forest inventory was:. The costs table used in the analyses was obtained from Binoti The interest rate used was 8. Formulation of the regulation model generated a problem with 8, decision variables. In all forest regulation problems, satisfactory results were obtained for the regulation constraints and annual volume variation.

The IAC value for the model, with and without inclusion of the adjacency constraint, was 0. Using models with IAC minimization resulted in an index of 0. Such changes added characteristics even more complex and difficult to solve to forest regulation models.

Preference for scenically beautiful landscapes is a value inherent in people and such values vary from one socioeconomic group to another. Inclusion of environmental and landscape restrictions is mainly done by imposing adjacency constraints. Constraints consist of controlling interactions between management units within a forest in such way that harvest activities in one management unit will restrict harvest actions in neighboring or adjacent units MURRAY; CHURCH, They also prevent formation of large contiguous harvested areas.

Imposition of constraints entails a considerably increased computational effort, requiring long hours, if not days, to solve problems with relatively few management units using classic integer programming algorithms MCDILL; BRAZE, For this reason, many research studies have been conducted to try and reduce the processing time involved in solving such problems. Adjacency constraints were originally formulated by Thompson et al.

Besides the considerable dimension a regulation model acquires with imposition of this type of constraint, obtaining a feasible solution to the problem while meeting all constraints is many a time unenforceable. The index used for models comparison is extremely simple and easy to obtain with application of Geographic Information Systems GIS or mapping techniques. The index was found to be consistent with assumptions adopted for management of even-aged plantation landscapes. The index is directly proportional to the area under intervention and inversely proportional to the distance between management units under intervention, weighted by the annual harvest area.

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Hirschfeld and Julie A. Bettinger and Rachel E. Victor and Donald J. Davidson and Andrew J. Currie and J. Mark Ansermino and David W. Scheifele and Jordan S. Orange and Stuart E. Bettinger and Phyllis E. Kozarsky DOI: Morbidity and mortality of invasive meningococcal disease in Canada Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in preventing hospitalization of children months of age Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology Bettinger and Nancy E.

Adler and Frank C. Curriero and Jonathan M. Ellen DOI: Bettinger and David D. Celentano and Frank C. Curriero and Nancy E. Adler and Susan G. Millstein and Jonathan M. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in eco-challenge Sabah Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report Appropriately vaccinated children among hospitalized pertussis cases Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology.

Does deep kissing increase the risk of meningitis in teens? Parkhurst Exchange. Current Projects Population based active surveillance for meningococcal infections in adults and children across Canada. Current Projects Canada National Vaccine Safety network: monitors the safety of seasonal influenza vaccine each year. It can take years to turn scientific breakthrough into new interventions and treatments.

Funding helps speed the pace of change. Sign up for compelling stories about innovative science, the doctors and researchers who help turn ideas into discoveries and treatments, and the kids and families whose lives are changed. Julie A Bettinger. Overview I am a vaccine safety scientist at the Vaccine Evaluation Center, a leading center for applied vaccine research in Canada.

Current Projects Health care provider and parental vaccine hesitancy Current Projects Immunization Monitoring Program, Active IMPACT : hospital-based active surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases and adverse events following immunization Current Projects Population based active surveillance for meningococcal infections in adults and children across Canada Current Projects Canada National Vaccine Safety network: monitors the safety of seasonal influenza vaccine each year.

Research Group Members. Stories See all. App could provide new way to track vaccine safety Researchers from BC Children's Hospital and The Ottawa Hospital have launched a pilot study that uses an app to track adverse events related to flu vaccine. Continue reading App could provide new way to track vaccine safety. Continue reading Most British Columbians support policies to boost vaccine uptake: new research. Let's start by talking about the role of an epidemiologist. Then we'll take a closer look at what vaccines are and how they work, and learn about their profound impact on society.

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