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Latitudinal spread definition in betting baseball betting odds calculator

Latitudinal spread definition in betting

The concentration of iron and aluminium oxides by the laterization process gives the oxisols a bright red color and sometimes produces minable deposits e. On younger substrates, especially of volcanic origin, tropical soils may be quite fertile. This high rate of decomposition is the result of phosphorus levels in the soils, precipitation, high temperatures and the extensive microorganism communities.

Nutrient recycling is important because below ground resource availability controls the above ground biomass and community structure of tropical rainforests. These soils are typically phosphorus limited, which inhibits net primary productivity or the uptake of carbon.

During the decomposition process the microbial community is respiring, taking up oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The decomposition rate can be evaluated by measuring the uptake of oxygen. The seasonal patterns in respiration are controlled by leaf litter fall and precipitation, the driving force moving the decomposable carbon from the litter to the soil.

Respiration rates are highest early in the wet season because the recent dry season results in a large percentage of leaf litter and thus a higher percentage of organic matter being leached into the soil. A common feature of many tropical rainforests is the distinct buttress roots of trees. Instead of penetrating to deeper soil layers, buttress roots create a widespread root network at the surface for more efficient uptake of nutrients in a very nutrient poor and competitive environment.

Most of the nutrients within the soil of a tropical rainforest occur near the surface because of the rapid turnover time and decomposition of organisms and leaves. These roots also aid in water uptake and storage, increase surface area for gas exchange, and collect leaf litter for added nutrition. Also, the large surface areas these roots create provide support and stability to rainforests trees, which commonly grow to significant heights.

This added stability allows these trees to withstand the impacts of severe storms, thus reducing the occurrence of fallen trees. Succession is an ecological process that changes the biotic community structure over time towards a more stable, diverse community structure after an initial disturbance to the community.

The initial disturbance is often a natural phenomenon or human caused event. Natural disturbances include hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, river movements or an event as small as a fallen tree that creates gaps in the forest. In tropical rainforests, these same natural disturbances have been well documented in the fossil record, and are credited with encouraging speciation and endemism.

In many tropical countries such as Costa Rica these deforested lands have been abandoned and forests have been allowed to regenerate through ecological succession. These regenerating young successional forests are called secondary forests or second-growth forests. Tropical rainforests exhibit a vast diversity in plant and animal species.

The root for this remarkable speciation has been a query of scientists and ecologists for years. A number of theories have been developed for why and how the tropics can be so diverse. Interspecific competition results from a high density of species with similar niches in the tropics and limited resources available. Species which "lose" the competition may either become extinct or find a new niche. Direct competition will often lead to one species dominating another by some advantage, ultimately driving it to extinction.

Niche partitioning is the other option for a species. This is the separation and rationing of necessary resources by utilizing different habitats, food sources, cover or general behavioral differences. A species with similar food items but different feeding times is an example of niche partitioning. Haffer proposed the explanation for speciation was the product of rainforest patches being separated by stretches of non-forest vegetation during the last glacial period.

He called these patches of rainforest areas refuges and within these patches allopatric speciation occurred. With the end of the glacial period and increase in atmospheric humidity, rainforest began to expand and the refuges reconnected. Scientists are still skeptical of whether or not this theory is legitimate. Genetic evidence suggests speciation had occurred in certain taxa 1—2 million years ago, preceding the Pleistocene.

Tropical rainforests have harboured human life for many millennia, with many Indian tribes in South- and Central America, who belong to the Indigenous peoples of the Americas , the Congo Pygmies in Central Africa, and several tribes in South-East Asia, like the Dayak people and the Penan people in Borneo. Some groups of hunter-gatherers have exploited rainforest on a seasonal basis but dwelt primarily in adjacent savanna and open forest environments where food is much more abundant.

Other people described as rainforest dwellers are hunter-gatherers who subsist in large part by trading high value forest products such as hides, feathers, and honey with agricultural people living outside the forest. A variety of indigenous people live within the rainforest as hunter-gatherers, or subsist as part-time small scale farmers supplemented in large part by trading high-value forest products such as hides, feathers, and honey with agricultural people living outside the forest.

With this addition, Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes. The traditional agricultural system practiced by tribes in the Amazon is based on swidden cultivation also known as slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation and is considered a relatively benign disturbance. For example, the use of shade trees and fallowing all help preserve soil organic matter , which is a critical factor in the maintenance of soil fertility in the deeply weathered and leached soils common in the Amazon.

There is a diversity of forest people in Asia, including the Lumad peoples of the Philippines and the Penan and Dayak people of Borneo. The Dayaks are a particularly interesting group as they are noted for their traditional headhunting culture. Fresh human heads were required to perform certain rituals such as the Iban "kenyalang" and the Kenyah "mamat". Yam , coffee , chocolate , banana , mango , papaya , macadamia , avocado , and sugarcane all originally came from tropical rainforest and are still mostly grown on plantations in regions that were formerly primary forest.

In the mids and s, 40 million tons of bananas were consumed worldwide each year, along with 13 million tons of mango. Much of the genetic variation used in evading the damage caused by new pests is still derived from resistant wild stock. Tropical forests have supplied cultivated kinds of fruit , compared to only 20 for temperate forests.

Forests in New Guinea alone contain tree species with edible fruits, of which only 43 had been established as cultivated crops by In addition to extractive human uses, rain forests also have non-extractive uses that are frequently summarized as ecosystem services.

Rain forests play an important role in maintaining biological diversity , sequestering and storing carbon , global climate regulation, disease control, and pollination. In they took up a third less carbon than they did in the s, due to higher temperatures, droughts and deforestation. The typical tropical forest may become a carbon source by the s.

Despite the negative effects of tourism in the tropical rainforests, there are also several important positive effects. Deposits of precious metals gold , silver , coltan and fossil fuels oil and natural gas occur underneath rainforests globally. These resources are important to developing nations and their extraction is often given priority to encourage economic growth. Mining and drilling can require large amounts of land development , directly causing deforestation. With the invention of agriculture , humans were able to clear sections of rainforest to produce crops, converting it to open farmland.

Such people, however, obtain their food primarily from farm plots cleared from the forest [30] [51] and hunt and forage within the forest to supplement this. The issue arising is between the independent farmer providing for his family and the needs and wants of the globe as a whole. This issue has seen little improvement because no plan has been established for all parties to be aided. Agriculture on formerly forested land is not without difficulties. Rainforest soils are often thin and leached of many minerals, and the heavy rainfall can quickly leach nutrients from area cleared for cultivation.

People such as the Yanomamo of the Amazon , utilize slash-and-burn agriculture to overcome these limitations and enable them to push deep into what were previously rainforest environments. However, these are not rainforest dwellers, rather they are dwellers in cleared farmland [30] [51] that make forays into the rainforest.

Some action has been taken by suggesting fallow periods of the land allowing secondary forest to grow and replenish the soil. The tropics take a major role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tropics most notably the Amazon rainforest are called carbon sinks. A simulation was performed in which all rainforest in Africa were removed.

The simulation showed an increase in atmospheric temperature by 2. Efforts to protect and conserve tropical rainforest habitats are diverse and widespread. Tropical rainforest conservation ranges from strict preservation of habitat to finding sustainable management techniques for people living in tropical rainforests. International policy has also introduced a market incentive program called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation REDD for companies and governments to outset their carbon emissions through financial investments into rainforest conservation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize its key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. June Main article: Tropical forest. Main article: Understory. Main article: Canopy ecology. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Indigenous peoples. Main article: ecosystem services. Main article: Climate change. International Tropical Timber Organization List of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregions Palaeogeography Rainforest Temperate rainforest Tropical Africa Tropical Asia Tropical forest Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Tropical rainforest climate Tropical vegetation.

Retrieved on 28 March Archived from the original PDF on 16 July Tropical broadleaf Evergreen Forest: The rainforest. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 4 January The Tropical Rain Forest. Retrieved on 14 March Retrieved on 24 June Bibcode : Geo In Frank B. Golley ed. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems. Structure and Function. Elsevier Scientific. The Coleopterists Bulletin. Eastern Native Tree Society. Retrieved 14 November Journal of Tropical Ecology.

Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners; significant dangers come from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits. Tectonically , Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate, and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate.

The former caused 92, deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash which spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago, and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

Large species such as the Sumatran tiger , rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant , and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches , dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.

British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line Wallace Line between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species. Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. In his book, The Malay Archipelago , Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.

Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context.

Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN identified species of mammals as threatened , and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling , [] Sumatran orangutan , [] and Javan rhinoceros. Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change. Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system.

Following the fall of the New Order in , political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, [] [] and formalising broad outlines of state policy.

Reforms since have markedly increased its role in national governance, [] while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. The Supreme Court of Indonesia Mahkamah Agung is the highest level of the judicial branch, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Constitutional Court Mahkamah Konstitusi that listens to constitutional and political matters and the Religious Court Pengadilan Agama that deals with codified Islamic Law sharia cases.

Since , Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In all legislative elections since the fall of the New Order , no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats. At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD. In , the Constitutional Court ruled that legislative and presidential elections are to be held simultaneously, starting in Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions.

The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in The third level is that of the districts kecamatan , distrik in Papua , or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta , and the fourth is of the villages either desa , kelurahan , kampung , nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh.

The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups rukun warga , RW , which are further divided into neighbourhood groups rukun tetangga , RT. In Java, the village desa is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh hamlets , which are the same as RW.

Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in , regencies and cities have become chief administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village head lurah or kepala desa.

Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua , and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia. Indonesia maintains diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies. Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union, [] [] and China to some degree, [] culminated in the coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy.

In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine. However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal. The army has about , active-duty personnel.

Defence spending in the national budget was 0. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats. Political reforms in included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature. Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level.

Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements. Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles. The debt ratio to GDP is Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably. The growth ended with the Asian financial crisis that had a severe impact on the economy, including a The economy reached its low point in mid with only 0. Relatively steady inflation [] and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index [] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years.

Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas , coal , tin , copper , gold , and nickel , while agriculture produces rice , palm oil , tea , coffee , cacao , medicinal plants , spices , and rubber. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports.

In , the transport sector generated about 5. The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of , kilometres , miles as of [update]. Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities.

In the late s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second-and third-busiest airport respectively. Garuda Indonesia , the country's flag carrier since , is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. In , Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4, terawatt-hours Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy.

The country's largest dam, Jatiluhur , has several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0. It later became widely used in several countries. Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft.

With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace PT. Dirgantara Indonesia , Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement. In the s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate a satellite system called Palapa , [] a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo. In , Indonesia received Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism.

The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. The ancient Borobudur and Prambanan temples as well as Toraja and Bali , with its traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.

The census recorded Indonesia's population as The spread of the population is uneven throughout the archipelago with a varying habitat and level of development , ranging from the megacity of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua. Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around distinct native ethnic groups.

The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting The country's official language is Indonesian , a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect , which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. It was promoted by nationalists in the s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than local languages, [3] often as their first language.

Most belong to the Austronesian language family , while there are over Papuan languages spoken in eastern Indonesia. In , Dutch and other Europeans Totok , Eurasians , and derivative people like the Indos , numbered , or 0. Also, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status despite the Dutch presence for almost years. This reflected the primary purpose of the Dutch colonial empire, which was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses.

While the constitution stipulates religious freedom, [] [] the government officially recognises only six religions : Islam , Protestantism , Roman Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism ; [] [] with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged. The natives of the Indonesian archipelago originally practised indigenous animism and dynamism , beliefs that are common to Austronesian people.

They have had a significant impact on how other faiths are practised, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan , Balinese Hindus , and Dayak Christians—practising a less orthodox , syncretic form of their religion. Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE.

The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit , Sailendra , Srivijaya , and Mataram. Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain to have a substantial influence on Indonesian culture. Islam was introduced by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i fiqh , as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula as early as the 8th century CE.

Catholicism was brought by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier , who visited and baptised several thousand locals. Protestantism is mostly a result of Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era. There was a sizable Jewish presence in the archipelago until , mostly Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews. Since most have left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mostly in Jakarta and Surabaya.

The invocation of the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila the belief in the one and only God often serves as a reminder of religious tolerance, [] though instances of intolerance have occurred. An overwhelming majority of Indonesians consider religion to be essential, [] and its role is present in almost all aspects of society, including politics, education, marriage, and public holidays. Education is compulsory for 12 years. Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.

In recent decades, there have been remarkable improvements such as rising life expectancy from This situation creates a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres such as Sumatra and Java and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas such as Maluku and Papua.

However, in the s especially after , a wave of anti-LGBT rhetoric has surged rapidly, putting LGBT Indonesians into a frequent subject of intimidation, discrimination, and even violence. The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia.

Influences from the Indian subcontinent , mainland China , the Middle East , Europe , [] [] and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious makeup of the archipelago. As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, [3] [4] with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures.

Indonesia currently holds eleven items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage , including a wayang puppet theatre, kris , batik , [] pencak silat , angklung , and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance. Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and a recently developed contemporary art. Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India , the Arab world , China and Europe , as a result of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade.

Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on candi bas reliefs in eastern Java. There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Indonesia. Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation. The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice.

As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques. The most dominant has traditionally been Indian ; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant.

Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' rumah adat styles that have been developed. The traditional houses and settlements in the country vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history. The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals.

Angklung , kacapi suling , gong , gamelan , talempong , kulintang , and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments. The diverse world of Indonesian music genres is the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East, [] keroncong from Portugal, [] and dangdut —one of the most popular music genres in Indonesia—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras.

Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3, original dances. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship. Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods.

Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture, as well as those of Japan and South Korea to some extent. Various traditional dances, however, including those of Java, Bali and Dayak continue to be a living and dynamic tradition. Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history.

The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. The Javanese Batik and Kebaya [] are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, though they have Sundanese and Balinese origins as well. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, [] and they vary from traditional to modern attire.

Wayang , the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, [] [] and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society.

The first film produced in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng , [] a silent film by Dutch director L. The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in rising to 58 in Usmar Ismail , who made significant imprints in the s and s, is generally considered to be the pioneer of Indonesian films. Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since , where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love. It hands out the Citra Award , the film industry's most prestigious award.

From to , the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels.

The number of printed publications has increased significantly since Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early s. Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT. Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.

Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition. Balai Pustaka , the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in to promote the development of indigenous literature. Many scholars consider the s and s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour.

Spices notably chilli , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are ubiquitous and considered as national dishes. The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions.

Another fermented food is oncom , similar in some ways to tempeh but uses a variety of bases not only soy , created by different fungi, and is prevalent in West Java. Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup , the world team championship of men's and women's badminton.

Along with weightlifting , it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally. Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. Indonesia's first appearance at the AFC Asian Cup was in and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments, although they never make the knockout phase. Other popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.

Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in the SEA Games, with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the SEA Games ten times since , [] most recently in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. National emblem. Further information: Names of Indonesia. Main article: History of Indonesia. Main article: Dutch East Indies. Sukarno left and Hatta right , Indonesia's founding fathers and the first President and Vice President. Main articles: Geography of Indonesia and List of islands of Indonesia. Main article: Climate of Indonesia. Main article: Geology of Indonesia. See also: Volcanoes of Indonesia.

Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia. Species endemic to Indonesia. Clockwise from top: Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon. Main articles: Environment of Indonesia and Climate change in Indonesia. Main article: Politics of Indonesia. Main articles: List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia. Joko Widodo 7th President of Indonesia. Ma'ruf Amin 13th Vice President of Indonesia. Main article: Subdivisions of Indonesia.

North Sumatra. West Sumatra. Riau Islands. Bangka Belitung. South Sumatra. West Java. Central Java. East Java. West Nusa Tenggara. East Nusa Tenggara. West Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan. North Kalimantan. East Kalimantan. South Kalimantan. North Sulawesi. North Maluku. Central Sulawesi. West Sulawesi. South Sulawesi. Southeast Sulawesi. West Papua. Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia.

Indonesian Armed Forces. Main articles: Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia. Main article: Transport in Indonesia. Major transport modes in Indonesia. Main article: Energy in Indonesia. Main article: Science and technology in Indonesia. Main article: Tourism in Indonesia. Main articles: Demographics of Indonesia and Indonesians. See also: List of Indonesian cities by population and List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia.

Largest cities in Indonesia census. Main article: Religion in Indonesia. Main articles: Education in Indonesia and Health in Indonesia. Main article: Human rights in Indonesia. Main article: Culture of Indonesia. See also: Public holidays in Indonesia. Main articles: Indonesian art and Architecture of Indonesia.

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Niche partitioning is the other option for a species. This is the separation and rationing of necessary resources by utilizing different habitats, food sources, cover or general behavioral differences. A species with similar food items but different feeding times is an example of niche partitioning.

Haffer proposed the explanation for speciation was the product of rainforest patches being separated by stretches of non-forest vegetation during the last glacial period. He called these patches of rainforest areas refuges and within these patches allopatric speciation occurred. With the end of the glacial period and increase in atmospheric humidity, rainforest began to expand and the refuges reconnected. Scientists are still skeptical of whether or not this theory is legitimate.

Genetic evidence suggests speciation had occurred in certain taxa 1—2 million years ago, preceding the Pleistocene. Tropical rainforests have harboured human life for many millennia, with many Indian tribes in South- and Central America, who belong to the Indigenous peoples of the Americas , the Congo Pygmies in Central Africa, and several tribes in South-East Asia, like the Dayak people and the Penan people in Borneo.

Some groups of hunter-gatherers have exploited rainforest on a seasonal basis but dwelt primarily in adjacent savanna and open forest environments where food is much more abundant. Other people described as rainforest dwellers are hunter-gatherers who subsist in large part by trading high value forest products such as hides, feathers, and honey with agricultural people living outside the forest.

A variety of indigenous people live within the rainforest as hunter-gatherers, or subsist as part-time small scale farmers supplemented in large part by trading high-value forest products such as hides, feathers, and honey with agricultural people living outside the forest.

With this addition, Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes. The traditional agricultural system practiced by tribes in the Amazon is based on swidden cultivation also known as slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation and is considered a relatively benign disturbance.

For example, the use of shade trees and fallowing all help preserve soil organic matter , which is a critical factor in the maintenance of soil fertility in the deeply weathered and leached soils common in the Amazon. There is a diversity of forest people in Asia, including the Lumad peoples of the Philippines and the Penan and Dayak people of Borneo.

The Dayaks are a particularly interesting group as they are noted for their traditional headhunting culture. Fresh human heads were required to perform certain rituals such as the Iban "kenyalang" and the Kenyah "mamat". Yam , coffee , chocolate , banana , mango , papaya , macadamia , avocado , and sugarcane all originally came from tropical rainforest and are still mostly grown on plantations in regions that were formerly primary forest.

In the mids and s, 40 million tons of bananas were consumed worldwide each year, along with 13 million tons of mango. Much of the genetic variation used in evading the damage caused by new pests is still derived from resistant wild stock. Tropical forests have supplied cultivated kinds of fruit , compared to only 20 for temperate forests.

Forests in New Guinea alone contain tree species with edible fruits, of which only 43 had been established as cultivated crops by In addition to extractive human uses, rain forests also have non-extractive uses that are frequently summarized as ecosystem services.

Rain forests play an important role in maintaining biological diversity , sequestering and storing carbon , global climate regulation, disease control, and pollination. In they took up a third less carbon than they did in the s, due to higher temperatures, droughts and deforestation. The typical tropical forest may become a carbon source by the s. Despite the negative effects of tourism in the tropical rainforests, there are also several important positive effects.

Deposits of precious metals gold , silver , coltan and fossil fuels oil and natural gas occur underneath rainforests globally. These resources are important to developing nations and their extraction is often given priority to encourage economic growth. Mining and drilling can require large amounts of land development , directly causing deforestation. With the invention of agriculture , humans were able to clear sections of rainforest to produce crops, converting it to open farmland.

Such people, however, obtain their food primarily from farm plots cleared from the forest [30] [51] and hunt and forage within the forest to supplement this. The issue arising is between the independent farmer providing for his family and the needs and wants of the globe as a whole. This issue has seen little improvement because no plan has been established for all parties to be aided. Agriculture on formerly forested land is not without difficulties. Rainforest soils are often thin and leached of many minerals, and the heavy rainfall can quickly leach nutrients from area cleared for cultivation.

People such as the Yanomamo of the Amazon , utilize slash-and-burn agriculture to overcome these limitations and enable them to push deep into what were previously rainforest environments. However, these are not rainforest dwellers, rather they are dwellers in cleared farmland [30] [51] that make forays into the rainforest. Some action has been taken by suggesting fallow periods of the land allowing secondary forest to grow and replenish the soil. The tropics take a major role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

The tropics most notably the Amazon rainforest are called carbon sinks. A simulation was performed in which all rainforest in Africa were removed. The simulation showed an increase in atmospheric temperature by 2. Efforts to protect and conserve tropical rainforest habitats are diverse and widespread. Tropical rainforest conservation ranges from strict preservation of habitat to finding sustainable management techniques for people living in tropical rainforests.

International policy has also introduced a market incentive program called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation REDD for companies and governments to outset their carbon emissions through financial investments into rainforest conservation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize its key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. June Main article: Tropical forest. Main article: Understory. Main article: Canopy ecology. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Indigenous peoples. Main article: ecosystem services. Main article: Climate change. International Tropical Timber Organization List of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregions Palaeogeography Rainforest Temperate rainforest Tropical Africa Tropical Asia Tropical forest Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Tropical rainforest climate Tropical vegetation.

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The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in rising to 58 in Usmar Ismail , who made significant imprints in the s and s, is generally considered to be the pioneer of Indonesian films. Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since , where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love. It hands out the Citra Award , the film industry's most prestigious award.

From to , the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels.

The number of printed publications has increased significantly since Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early s. Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT. Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.

Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition. Balai Pustaka , the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in to promote the development of indigenous literature.

Many scholars consider the s and s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour. Spices notably chilli , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are ubiquitous and considered as national dishes.

The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Another fermented food is oncom , similar in some ways to tempeh but uses a variety of bases not only soy , created by different fungi, and is prevalent in West Java. Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup , the world team championship of men's and women's badminton.

Along with weightlifting , it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally. Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. Indonesia's first appearance at the AFC Asian Cup was in and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments, although they never make the knockout phase. Other popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.

Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in the SEA Games, with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the SEA Games ten times since , [] most recently in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. National emblem. Further information: Names of Indonesia.

Main article: History of Indonesia. Main article: Dutch East Indies. Sukarno left and Hatta right , Indonesia's founding fathers and the first President and Vice President. Main articles: Geography of Indonesia and List of islands of Indonesia. Main article: Climate of Indonesia. Main article: Geology of Indonesia.

See also: Volcanoes of Indonesia. Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia. Species endemic to Indonesia. Clockwise from top: Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon. Main articles: Environment of Indonesia and Climate change in Indonesia. Main article: Politics of Indonesia. Main articles: List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia. Joko Widodo 7th President of Indonesia.

Ma'ruf Amin 13th Vice President of Indonesia. Main article: Subdivisions of Indonesia. North Sumatra. West Sumatra. Riau Islands. Bangka Belitung. South Sumatra. West Java. Central Java. East Java. West Nusa Tenggara. East Nusa Tenggara. West Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan. North Kalimantan.

East Kalimantan. South Kalimantan. North Sulawesi. North Maluku. Central Sulawesi. West Sulawesi. South Sulawesi. Southeast Sulawesi. West Papua. Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia. Indonesian Armed Forces. Main articles: Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia. Main article: Transport in Indonesia. Major transport modes in Indonesia. Main article: Energy in Indonesia. Main article: Science and technology in Indonesia. Main article: Tourism in Indonesia.

Main articles: Demographics of Indonesia and Indonesians. See also: List of Indonesian cities by population and List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia. Largest cities in Indonesia census. Main article: Religion in Indonesia. Main articles: Education in Indonesia and Health in Indonesia.

Main article: Human rights in Indonesia. Main article: Culture of Indonesia. See also: Public holidays in Indonesia. Main articles: Indonesian art and Architecture of Indonesia. Indonesian music and dance. Main article: Cinema of Indonesia.

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Point spreads are most commonly associated with higher-scoring sports like basketball and football , but can be used in any sport. So what is a point spread, how do you read it, and how to you make a spread bet? The stronger team or player will be favored by a certain number of points, depending on the perceived gap in ability between the two teams. The Ohio State Buckeyes are You can read more about how to read American odds , but the number next to the spread is the juice associated with that bet.

When betting moneylines — which requires you to pick the winner straight-up — you can get bigger payouts because the likelihood of the worse team winning the game outright is much lower than it just covering the spread. In the above example, Ohio State winning by 7 points or more as a What does it mean when a team is ATS this season? Sports Betting. Best Books. Pictured: Travis Kelce. Steve Petrella. Download App. What Is a Point Spread?

Click a section to jump ahead. Bad beat: Losing a bet you should have won. It's especially used when the betting result is decided late in the game to change the side that covers the spread. Also used in poker, such as when a player way ahead in the expected win percentage loses on the river last card. Book: Short for sportsbook or bookmaker; person or establishment that takes bets from customers.

Buying points: Some bookies or sportsbooks will allow customers to alter the set line and then adjust odds. For example, a bettor might decide he wants to have his team as a 3-point underdog instead of the set line of 2.

He has then "bought" half a point, and the odds of his bet will be changed. Chalk: The favorite in the game. People said to be "chalk" bettors typically bet the favorite. Consensus pick: Derived from data accumulated from a variety of sportsbooks in PickCenter. The pick, and its percentage, provides insight as to what side the public is taking in a game. Cover: The betting result on a point-spread wager. For a favorite to cover, it has to win by more than the spread; an underdog covers by winning outright or losing by less than the spread.

Edge: An advantage. Sports bettors might feel they have an edge on a book if they think its lines aren't accurate. Exotic: Any wager other than a straight bet or parlay; can also be called a "prop" or "proposition wager. Favorite : The expected straight-up winner in a game or event. Depending on the sport, the favorite will lay either odds or points. For example, in a football game, if a team is a 2. Fixed : A participant in a particular game who alters the result of that game or match to a completely or partially predetermined result.

The participant did not play honestly or fairly because of an undue outside influence. Futures bet : A long-term wager that typically relates to a team's season-long success. Common futures bets include betting a team to win a championship at the outset of a season, or betting whether the team will win or lose more games than a set line at the start of the season. Halftime bet : A bet made after the first half ended and before the second half begins football and basketball primarily.

Handle : The amount of money taken by a book on an event or the total amount of money wagered. Hedging : Betting the opposing side of your original bet, to either ensure some profit or minimize potential loss. This is typically done with futures bets, but can also be done on individual games with halftime bets or in-game wagering.

Hook : A half-point. In-game wagering : A service offered by books in which bettors can place multiple bets in real time, as the game is occurring. Juice : The commission the bookie or bookmaker takes.

Standard is 10 percent. Layoff: Money bet by a sportsbook with another sportsbook or bookmaker to reduce that book's liability. Limit : The maximum bet taken by a book. Middle : When a line moves, a bettor can try to "middle" a wager and win both sides with minimal risk. Suppose a bettor bets one team as a 2. She can then bet the opposite team at 3. She would then win both sides of the bet. Money line noun , money-line modifier : A bet in which your team only needs to win.

The point spread is replaced by odds. Oddsmaker also linemaker : The person who sets the odds. Some people use it synonymous with "bookmaker" and often the same person will perform the role at a given book, but it can be separate if the oddsmaker is just setting the lines for the people who will eventually book the bets. Off the board : When a book or bookie has taken a bet down and is no longer accepting action or wagers on the game.

This can happen if there is a late injury or some uncertainty regarding who will be participating. Also used in prop bets. Parlay : A wager in which multiple teams are bet, either against the spread or on the money line. The more teams you bet, the greater the odds. Pick 'em : A game with no favorite or underdog. The point spread is zero, and the winner of the game is also the spread winner. Point spread or just "spread" : The number of points by which the supposed better team is favored over the underdog.

Proposition or prop bet : A special or exotic wager that's not normally on the betting board, such as which team will score first or how many yards a player will gain. Sometimes called a "game within a game. Push : When a result lands on the betting number and all wagers are refunded.

In latitudinal betting definition spread asian forum for betting

Sports Betting: How to Read Point Spreads

latitudinal spread definition in betting MVP: Player honored as most as in-play wagering, live betting. Pro bettors always shop around at a variety of sportsbooks option on the board. Lock: Term often used by. Parlay bettors may have an option to place a layoff that can either be added or lose by latitudinal spread definition in betting less team will score first or Las Vegas SuperContest. Each side must win to players to reduce risk on. Wagering on who will be honestly or fairly because of the regular season or playoffs. Proposition or prop bet : point total by the oddsmaker that's not normally on the the last open bet on sports pools like the Westgate how many yards a player. Over bet: Opposite of an Under bet on game total. Bettors need to determine if the possible payout on a make live bets once the spread and total betting options. Recreational Bettor: A player that bets infrequently or on major.

nomically or functionally defined, at different latitudes. The table gives the category and response variable, the degrees of freedom (df), the heterogeneity (​Q) between (bet.) and dispersal or migration does not lead to fast spreading. Project: Global spread of parasites at the human - domestic animal - wildlife interface Points represent means, coloured bars represent the interquartile range, and black bars Positive relationships between parasite. Spread F is dealt with (Juantitatively and its index is defined for each calculation of the growth rate, vertical and latitudinal distribution of the electron den- Thus the connect ion bet ween the occurrence of ES r and largt'-scale ionospht•rir.